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Gas-Lift Valve and Gas-Lift Mandrel Metallurgy, Welding, and Testing
by: Holt, Jim — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

Gas-Lift Mandrels and Gas-Lift Valves are being exposed to service conditions today that require careful selection of materials and processes. This presentation is to review standard selected materials mostly used in the industry for specific service conditions. Discussions will include materials strength, corrosion resistance and conditions suitable for service conditions.

Mandrels and gas lift valves are an assembly of many components. To complete the assembly of these products requires fabrication processes which includes welding and brazing processes. Discussions for typical fabrications and processes will be discussed.

Any time there are fabrication processes used, there needs to be inspection methods at hand to verify the quality of those processes being preformed. A brief review of those inspection methods will be discussed in this presentation.

by: Cleon Dunham, Shaikhan al Khadhori, Abdullah al Harthy — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Control

Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) is implementing an "Intelligent ESP" system to automate bean-up (well start up) and optimize normal production operation. It has been successfully tested, using a Fixed Speed Drive (FSD) with an electrically operated wellhead control valve to control the production rate. Other equipment used in the test included a downhole gauge for measuring intake pressure and other variables, a coriolis meter for measuring production rate at the wellhead, a sand monitor for measuring sand production rate, a remote terminal unit, and a SCADA system.

The ESPs can be controlled by varying the wellhead control valve position or the VSD frequency to achieve the desired production rate, tubing pressure, pump intake pressure, or level of fluid above pump.

During bean-up, the system produces at successively higher rates, with checks to assure that sand production and all other constraints are at acceptable levels. When bean-up completes, the system transitions to "n

"To Dry or Not To Dry" – A Dehydration Discussion
by: Hall, Jim; Martinez, John — Added 6/29/2009 11:30:09 PMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Safe and profitable oil production via gas lift can be achieved through a blend of experienced people, quality hardware, and processes that keep the system operating 24/7.

This conversation is directed toward gas lift gas dehydration and the hidden dangers of hydrates and corrosion that can shut down production and/or create unsafe conditions.

Hardware specifications should meet API or ISO industry standards, which apply to valves/mandrels, compressors, and dehydration equipment. Lift gas process specifications require acceptably dry gas (water vapor removed). Yet operating companies do not always implement these standards, so we will review the perils of not adhering to these guidelines.

(14) New Positive-Seal Shroud Hanger Design Solves Production Problem in New Mexico Gas Wells
by: Art Pena, Chengbao Wang — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - ESP Pumps

Motor shrouds and hangers are commonly used to set ESPs below well perforations in order to maximize drawdown and/or minimize gas interference. In this New Mexico gas field, conventional shroud hangers created multiple problems. Wellbore fluids and gas leaked through conventional hangers and, consequently, a new design was installed and monitored. The new positive-seal shroud:

• efficiently forced wellbore fluid past the motor
• reduced motor temperature 30°F to 50°F
• reduced scaling
• allowed for more accurate equipment sizing, lowering the HP requirement by 50% in some cases
• provided better gas separation
• increased drawdown efficiency
• increased equipment run life and production.

The new design is installed in ten similar wells for three different operators, all producing the same positive results. This paper will detail the production performance of these wells before and after the new installation, as well as the basic design features of the shroud.

“Turbo Gas Lift“- Innovative Hybrid Artificial Lift System, New Developments And Initial Test Results
by: Sinko, Mato; Guzovic, Zvonimir; Matijasevic, Branimir; Keglevic, Kresimir; Nizetic, Tomislav — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

The operative costs of using ordinary continuous gas-lift significantly rise as oil is lifted from greater depths. The reason is that higher and higher amounts of gas must be compressed at bigger and bigger pressures, as depth rises. Furthermore, maximal intake gas pressure and maximal available amount of gas per well defined by surface gas-lift equipment defines maximal possible lifting depth. Consequently, if the fluid level in the well falls below the level of maximal possible lifting depth (defined by gas intake pressure and gas amount), then there arises a need for surface gas-lift equipment redesign, or even the introduction of other artificial lift types. Both situations commonly involve huge capital expenditures, which can be avoided by introducing the turbo lift system on already wells that already use gas-lift.

Furthermore, use of turbo lift causes huge energy savings compared with ordinary continuous gas-lift, especially when the static pressure decreases and the situation of pressure surplus in gas-lift system occurs.

The turbo gas-lift method is based on a combination of mechanical lifting by pump, and lifting by compressed gas (gas-lift). The pump in the turbo lift system is powered by a gas turbine fed by compressed gas, which after it gives turbine power, is used for gas-lift. By using compressed gas in this way, gas it is doing two types of work instead of one, which leads to higher energetic efficiency compared with conventional gas-lift, especially in lifting from big depths.

The turbo gas-lift system is combined with further main parts:
• Gas turbine, fed by compressed gas from the surface.
• The pump for mechanic lifting of fluid up to the above gas-lift valve. The pump is powered by the gas turbine.
• Standard gas-lift equipment which cotains a working gas-lift valve and release gas-lift valves.

Key benefits of turbo gas-lift:
• Increased volumetric efficiency - higher liquid volumes.
• Superior reservoir drawdown - Increased production rate.
• Decreased gas injection requirements.
• Lower energy consumption.
• Prolonged continious gas lift.
• Decreased abandonment pressure.

This work will present “Turbo Gas Lift“ operation principles, initial test results, and further R&D and field test plans.

2.8 Years of Field Performance of High Density Polyethylene Sleeved Sinkerbars (Polybars)
by: Scott W. Long, James Franklin, Don Dillingham, James M. Northcutt, Albert Garza, Ed Gipson, David Snapp — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

During the past 18 years, rod strings installed with Sinker bars have proven to reduce down stroke buckling, while maintaining tension in all rods above a properly designed Sinker bar section. The result has been reduced rod-on-tubing wear, extended tubing and sucker rod life.

During the past 5 years, use of High Density Polyethylene liners in oilfield tubing has also shown to extend tubing life. The wear resistance and coefficient of friction of polyethylene liners has reduced rod-on-tubing wear.

The benefits of these successful oilfield products have been combined in a new product. This High Density Polyethylene Sleeved Sinker bar trade named a Polybar provides the wear resistance and coefficient of friction of polyethylene with the resistance to buckling of a Sinker bar.

Results of a 2.5 year test program involving five (5) producing wells has documented no tubing leaks occurring in tubing protected by Polyethylene Sleeved Sinkerbars or Polybars.

2002 SPE ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 10:03:40 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the papers presented at the 2002 ESP Workshop.

2003 ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 10:08:06 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the presentations made at the 2003 ESP Workshop.

2004 ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 10:10:28 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the presentations made at the 2004 ESP Workshop.

2005 ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 10:13:05 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the presentations made at the 2005 ESP Workshop.

2007 ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the presentations made at the 2007 ESP Workshop.

2009 ESP Workshop, Summary of Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 6/10/2009 10:17:53 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the presentations made at the 2009 ESP Workshop.

2013 ESP Workshop - Summary of Technical Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 4/28/2015 11:12:11 PMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the technical presentations given at the 2013 ESP Workshop.

2015 ESP Workshop - Summary of Technical Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 4/28/2015 12:00:00 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries

This is a summary of the technical presentations given at the 2015 ESP Workshop

by: Bruce Gerrard, Bill Hearn — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

In order to keep capital cost down in tight gas fields, the slimhole 3½” wellbore was developed. Due to the large pipe diameter, high line pressure and low rock permeability, liquid loading becomes an issue early on a wells life cycle and, in most cases, liquid loading is immediate upon first delivery.

3½” plungers have proven to be an effective method for deliquification of the slim hole wellbore utilizing the larger cross sectional area to effectively push the plunger and accumulated liquids up the wellbore. In comparison, using the Foss & Gaul Calculation, the 3½” plunger can operate with a lower differential pressure across it than smaller tubing sizes.

The 3½” slimhole plunger has been successful in restoring production to the original decline curve or eliminating the hyperbolic decline recognized when liquid loading occurs. 3½” plungers are currently pushing the existing fluid lifting limits and new 3½” plunger technologies such as freecycle plunger lift systems are under e

by: Kenneth Barker, Vern Disney, Wayne Peterson — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

Hot oil treatment of flowline and downhole paraffin problems is still common in the oilfields of North America. The use of chemical programs has been growing but often the industry is unsure which type of treatment should be done and if these programs are more cost effective than hot oiling. This paper will attempt to show, based on the paraffin problems being experienced, which type of chemical treatment would be most cost effective for a particular problem. Case histories of economic treating programs will be presented.

A Computerized Model for Viscosity Correction of Centrifugal Pump Performance Curves
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 9:31:57 PMGeneral - PC Pump Topics

Abstract will be available at a later date.

A Current Comparison of Sucker Rod String Design Programs
by: Norman W. Hein, Russell Stevens — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

A comparison was made between four commercially available sucker rod string design programs: Rod Star, S-Rod, Q-Rod, LoadCal B and a proprietary, modified API RP11L based program. These programs used the same input requirements, where applicable, and their outputs compared dynamometers cards from five different producing wells. The results show differences in the anticipated major design loads along with differences in the output information. Recommendations are made on potential changes to these programs and comments are made on things to consider when these programs are used.

A Day in the Life of a Gas-Lift Well Analyst
by: Vetter, Dwayne; Dees, Dan; Peacock, Larry — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Provided with the latest technology, tools, and training, the Gas-Lift Well Analyst can increase his/her performance and benefit to an organization. The analyst is one of the key links in the day-to-day operation of a Gas-Lift field and proper emphasis should be placed on the position in any company that strives to get the most out of what they have. If this vital position is ignored, the best intentions of any well managed Gas-Lift field will not be as successful as they should be given just a little focus to the staffing needs, tools and training required in this key role.

Once the position of a Gas-Lift Well Analyst has been established, some key basic guidelines for the role and what it should be responsible for are needed to ensure it is clear what the day to day activities for this staff position are and how they fit into the overall organization.

A High-Reliability Gas-Lift Orifice
by: Hall, Jim — Added 4/14/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

The High Reliability gas-lift Orifice (HrglO) was conceived to address a $1MM hard cost associated with a tubing leak tracked down to a $2000 leaking reverse flow valve in a gas lift orifice. A short brainstorming session produced several approaches which were then reviewed and ranked according to development time, cost and compatibility with existing hardware. A patent search produced a similar design to one of the concepts, but the maintenance payments on the patent had been stopped and so the intellectual property was in the public domain.

A Low Cost, Low Risk Method to Determine Lift Points Using Tracer Gas
by: Dees, Dan — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

A low cost method exists to quickly and reliably determine lift gas entry point(s), such as open or leaking valves, without well intervention. The method creates a snapshot of well performance by introducing a small volume of CO2 into the injection line of a gas lifted well. A sensor placed at the wellhead, tree, or flow line separator monitors the amount of tracer gas returned in the production stream. From surface pressure and rate information, the depths of these measured returns are determined. This process is accomplished without production deferment or introduction of tools into the well bore. This information can be used to determine well operation after a work over, or assist in well integrity by locating entry points.

A New Approach to Describe the Gas Throughput Capacity of Gas Lift Valves
by: Turzo, Z., Takacs, Gabor — Added 10/18/2009 9:21:50 PMFluid

Abstract will be available at a later time.

by: Richard Marquez, Mauricio Prado — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General

Performance of any artificial lift pumping system is significantly affected when free gas enters the pump. Quantifying the natural separation efficiency will help to minimize this effect. In the last few years, the University of Tulsa Artificial Lift Projects (TUALP) experimental facilities were used to obtain important experimental data on natural separation. This data has allowed the development of simplified models such as Alhanati (1993) and Serrano (1999). Even though previous models have been able to provide an estimate for natural separation efficiency, both models never considered the effect of important variables as the slip velocity in the radial direction and the geometric characteristic of the bottomhole completion. This paper presents a new model and a new correlation obtained from TUALP experimental data. This work is different than previous simplified models since it considers the drag effect in the radial direction. This new model represents a simple and reliable tool,

A Review and Summary of Innovations and Applications for Casing Plungers in Gas Wells
by: Robert L. Moore, Windel O. Mayfield — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Casing Plungers

During the past 4 years, successful field applications for casing plungers have been extended through recently patented innovations in design. This paper will review and summarize the technical progress in casing plungers. A variety of field applications will be reviewed and a summary of results will be presented. Actual economics of successful applications will be presented. Criteria for well selection, based on the comparison of best and worst case results, will be detailed. Probable expectations will be demonstrated through charts of actual well results.

A Review of D.O.E Testing of VortexFlow Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas Production and Operations
by: Norman Hein — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Critical Velocity

New, patented technology developments on forming spiral flow in surface flowlines and pipelines as well as downhole to extend critical flow have been tested in a variety of programs by the Department of Energy (D.O.E.), with associations with the Stripper Well Consortium, Universities, and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. This presentation will provide a summary of this testing from 2002 through 2006. This will cover artificial lift applications to extend flowing wells, lower critical flow requirements to unload wells and production operations on mitigating paraffin and line freezing, as well as stagnant fluids removal. Finally, future testing of the various devices will be presented.

A Status Report on Gas Lift Systems in Beaver Lodge Madison Unit Horizontal Completions
by: Schmidt, Ron; Hill, Garth; Fredrickson, Dale; Hermann, Jeff; Fangmeier, Keith — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Horizontal completions provide many artificial lift challenges in the mature Beaver Lodge Madison Unit (BLMU). The Madison formation @ approximately 8400’ is naturally fractured and partially pressure depleted reservoir. BLMU productivity is enhanced 5x-20x of a vertical completion by placement of horizontal drainholes orthogonal to the natural fractures. Presently the following forms of gas lift are utilized in the BLMU:
• Conventional gas lift with IPO valves—Tubing flow & 1200 psi GL system
• Single point injection with orifice— Tubing flow & 1200 psi GL system
• Single point injection with orifice— Tubing flow & 2200 psi GL system
• Single point injection with orifice--Annular flow & 1200 psi GL system
• Intermittent flow—Tubing flow & 1200 psi GL system

A Study of Flow Stability in Gas-Lift Wells Producing from Saturated Reservoirs
by: Fairuzov, Y. V.; Guerrero-Sarabia, SPE I. — Added 4/15/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

A study was performed to investigate flow stability in gas-lift wells producing from saturated reservoirs. Different stability criteria proposed in the literature were compared using a gas-lift stability map. Based on this study, recommendations on the selection of gas-lift stability criteria were developed. Several examples of gas-lift stability map applications are given. It was shown that stability maps enable designers and operators to determine rapidly the effect of gas-lift design parameters and operating conditions on the system stability. Gas-lift stability maps can also be used for training and educational purposes.

Achieving Stability in a Gas-Lifted Well
by: Kallal, Arun — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Maintaining an optimized gas lifted production well is one of the challenges in oil field operation. Un-optimized wells can require more lift gas to achieve reasonable stability, fluid loss due to slug flow, affect other producing wells in the same lease, damage to unloading gas lift valves and increased downtime due to frequent slick line work.

This is more significant in wells with tubing pressure sensitive gas lift valves as oppose to the casing pressure sensitive gas lift valves that is more common in industry. Different initiatives tried in the past have ended up with either little or no success in eliminating the tubing surges of wells with historical surging trends.

Adaptive Product Technology for Coalbed Natural Gas (CBM)
by: Bill Grubb — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

The Coalbed Natural Gas Industry, or Coalbed Methane (CBM) continues to gain global popularity and momentum. However today, CBM operations are one of economic challenges. Varying coal seam depths, rapidly declining water production rates, uncharacteristic well completions, sand, coal fines, etc., prohibit using just one form artificial lift equipment. Successful CBM production operations demand multiple product lines. Weatherford determined that a new approach was needed that offered multiple product lines in addition to modifications of conventional artificial lift products. A presentation will be prepared that outlines the challenges CBM production presents to operators. This paper and presentation will discuss old artificial production techniques and new approaches. Because there is a never-ending focus on lowering lease operating expenses (LOE) operators continue to push manufacturers into modifying and or developing new production products. Weatherford has a dedicated CBM

Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD'S) For Artificial Lift Systems
by: Ralph Harding — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

For years we have known that “Long and Slow” is considered a Best Practice for rod pumped wells and that continuous running is best for ESP’s. In a perfect world we would have the ability to slow down or speed up a pump unit or ESP to match fluid inflow and to vary the speed of the up and down stroke of the rod pump system to minimize rod buckling.

In reality, we design a rod pump system for 80 to 85% run time and minimize pump off pounding with a POC. Our ability to do this is often limited by pump unit or sheave size. Fluctuating production results in high fluids or cycling of the artificial lift system. For ESP’s we usually adjust the operating frequency based on monthly fluid shots.

The industry recently took a step toward that “Perfect World” with Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD’s).

Adjustable Valve Rod and Pull Tube Guide for Downhole Sucker Rod Pumps
by: Mark Mahoney — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

The Adjustable Valve Rod and Pull Tube Guide is designed to allow for precise spacing in a down-hole sucker rod pump. In historical installations the spacing is based on the valve rod or pull tube length. This length is usually in one inch increments from the factory, or the rod or tube is field cut and threaded to maximize the pump compression ratio. This patented guide allows the spacing to be adjusted with greater precision and will compensate for manufacturing tolerances and reduce field cutting and threading of pull rods and pull tubes.

This paper will describe how the guide is designed, its specific applications and its advantages over conventional sucker rod and pull tube guides.

Advances in Artificial Lift Techniques
by: Various Authors — Added 11/9/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This is a two-day conference on advances in Artificial Lift, held in the Aberdeen Marriott Hotel, in Aberdeen, Scotland, in November, 1996.

Advances in Dynamometer Technology
by: O. Lynn Rowlan, James N. McCoy, A.L. Podio — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Dynamometer testing of sucker rod lifted wells is performed routinely in a safe and efficient manner throughout the world. Advances in dynamometer and computer technology have led to more accurate measurement of force and position at the surface and calculation of loads along the rod string and at the pump. Using an accelerometer to accurately detect sudden small movements of the polished rod gives a detailed picture of the changing conditions throughout the pumping cycle. Combining the measurement of acceleration with high-speed acquisition of precision load results in display of load spikes that are not usually seen in conventional dynamometers that use position indicators and low sensitivity electronics. Improvement of the polished rod transducer calibration technique has resulted in acquiring dynamometer load measurements equal to the accuracy of precision strain gage load cells. The field examples presented here suggest that the sampling frequency and sensitivity of convention

Albacora Leste Field: Performance of Gas-Lift Applied to Heavy Oils
by: Neto, Salvador — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Albacora Leste is a deep water petroleum field located in Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, offshore Brazil. The field comprises a total of 32 horizontal wells (17 production wells and 15 injection wells) tied back to a host FPSO platform moored at 1230 m water depth through flexible flowlines and risers in a free hanging configuration. All production wells are satellite and completed to gas lift injection through only one gas-lift mandrel. Oil densities range from 15 to 28 oAPI at water depths increasing from 950 to 1700 ms. Flow assurance strategies follow internal operational procedures to prevent wax deposition, hydrates formation and severe slugging.

One of the main questions regarding the artificial lift design method relies on the application and performance of gas-lift to heavy oils under a deep water scenario.

ALS Hydraulic Pump Improvement – Additional Development
by: Michael T. Gracey, Harold H. Palmour — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Hydraulic Pumping

A new technology called the Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box System, used successfully to prevent pollution caused by polished rod pumps, was designed for use in Artificial Lift System using a positive displacement plunger pump. The development was discussed in a paper presented at the 2000 Southwestern Petroleum Short Course, and this paper will discuss the field testing and further developments in the technology. A leak in the high pressure packing of a pump has the potential of causing environmental pollution, safety hazards, loss of energy and costly clean-up.

The technology described transfers the pressure of the product being pumped to a sacrificial barrier fluid of known characteristics. When the seals wear sufficiently to leak, only the environmentally friendly fluid leaks to the atmosphere. The presentation will include slides and drawings of the Hydro-Based Technology.

Amoco Submersible Pump Teardown Inspection Manual
by: Lea,. JF,. Powers, RJ — Added 11/9/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Manuals

The purpose of this manual is to outline inspection procedures for the
dismantling of Electric Submersible Pumps.

This manual covers the
dismantle inspection of the major downhole components of Electric Submersible Pumps - the motor, pump, protector or seal section, gas
separator, and pressure sensing instrument.

Use of the manual should insure that a complete inspection of damaged equipment is made and allow equipment failures to be diagnosed correctly. This can lead, in many
cases, to installation of new equipment more suitably designed to resist
any failure causing conditions identified from the teardown inspection.

An ALS Solution to Low Pressure SAGD
by: Hucman, Will — Added 10/26/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

The most common form of recovery used for deeper bitumen deposits in Canada is SAGD. (Steam Assisted Gravity Drain) Trends are toward low pressure SAGD which translates into lower operating costs and improved recoveries. Lower operating pressures require the use an Artificial Lift System (ALS) to attain desired production rates.

Weatherford has developed a technology specifically design to accommodate the challenges of producing low pressure SAGD wells – the Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP). The HGP is a rodless technology that uses high pressure gas to displace production fluid. The pump has undergone rigorous lab testing and is currently operating in field trials where it has exceeded expectations. Details provided on the HGP would include: an overview of the pump, its operation, development and a review of field trials and results.

An Analysis of Common Sucker Rod Pumping Failures and Practical Solutions to Prevent Reoccurrence
by: Mark W. Mahoney — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

This paper will focus primarily on damage to sucker rod pumps and other parts of the sucker rod pumping system due to common mistakes in operation procedures and operating conditions. A review of actual damaged materials and the operating parameters leading to the root cause of the failures will be presented as well as the solutions that were implemented to solve the problems.

Analsis of Dynamic Beam Pump Data:
by: Dr. James F. Lea — Added 11/9/2009 6:49:54 PMWinkler Library - Beam Pumping

APS (Advanced Pumping Systems), Lafayette, Colorado, was contracted to
make some unique detailed measurements on pumping units. The program
objectives were to provide detailed data on pumping unit performance to
serve as a benchmark for comparing to computer program predictions. Also,
the data might indicate how to more efficiently operate and control beam

Analyses of Laboratory, Instrumented Sucker-Rod Pump Data
by: A. J. (Chip) Mansure, A. L. Podio, Jaime Gomez, Benny J. Williams, Mark W. Mahoney — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

A full-scale, laboratory, instrumented sucker-rod pump has been constructed to aid in designing a downhole, instrumented pump. The laboratory pump has demonstrated that key to understanding of sucker-rod pumping is compression-chamber pressure. Laboratory data will be used to demonstrate real-time analysis techniques that will be used with the downhole, instrumented pump to differentiate between a gas-locked or a pumped-off well using compression-chamber pressure. For a gas-locked well, the pressure is symmetric between the upstroke and downstroke, whereas for a pumped-off well there are high and low pressure plateaus when the valves are open. A method will be demonstrated to determine sucker-rod pump fillage by cross plotting versus stroke (? is the heat capacity ratio). The intercept of the compression line and stroke gives pump fillage. The intersection of decompression and discharge pressure gives the residual gas trapped between the standing and traveling valves at the end

Analyzing Well Conditions and Successfully Operation ESP's by Utilizing Integrated Controls Systems in the Sacroc CO2 Flood
by: Larkin, Rebecca; Morgan, Kinder; Rainwater, Malcolm — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Control

Operating electric submersible pumps in a CO2 flood is challenging and requires applying new engineering and operational resources to be successful. Extremely high GLR’s, radically changing bottom hole pressures and changing fluid densities require more than just conventional methods for operating and troubleshooting ESP’s.

An integrated control system was used to troubleshoot well conditions that consist of high concentrations of CO2. Accurate bottom hole pressure, temperature and vibration information was collected and used to determine actual well conditions and make decisions based on real data.

This application decreases the “guess work” previously used in determining bottom hole conditions and increases the effectiveness of decision making to correct problems.

This paper is a continuation of work efforts that were started and discussed in last year’s SWPSC.

API Gas-Lift Recommended Practices
by: Martinez, John; Dunham, Cleon — Added 4/16/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

This presentation will highlight the purpose of

Existing documents: API Specification 11V1 – Gas lift valves, orifices, dummies, API Recommended Practice (RP) 11V2 – Gas lift valve testing, modeling, API RP 11V5 – Gas lift operations (revision in progress), API RP 11V6 – Gas lift design, API RP 11V7 – Gas lift valve reconditioning, and API RP 11V8 – Gas lift systems;

Documents under development: API RP 11V9 – Dual gas lift and API RP 11V10 – Intermittent gas lift

and how they can be obtained and used to facilitate training and best practices in oil and gas production companies.

API RP 90 – Recommended Practice for Annular Casing Pressure Management for Offshore Wells
by: Parker, Wanda June — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

In August 2006, API published the first addition of RP 90, API Recommended Practice, Annular Casing Pressure. This RP was developed in response to a draft rulemaking published by MMS in 2001 regarding annular pressure in wells located on the OCS. MMS is currently reviewing the RP for incorporation into the Code of Federal Regulations. This presentation will be an overview of the recommended practice and its development.

API Standards Overview
by: Goodman, Roland — Added 7/1/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

This presentation will cover API's standards program, including its history, mission, and role in the U.S. oil and natural gas industry. An overview of API's standards development process, standards committee structure, and international standards activities will be provided as well.

by: Ken Decker, Cleon Dunham, Burney Waring — Added 6/10/2009 4:16:13 PMFluid

This paper presents the practice of using downstream chokes in unloading injection pressure operated (IPO) gas-lift valves. The practice helps to assure effective unloading and may provide protection against erosion damage during the unloading process. It has several other benefits that are discussed in the paper.

A gas-lift valve/choke model has been developed. It provides accurate predictions of the gas passage through the choked valve during the unloading process. And, it can help to analyze existing gas-lift performance, where the objective is to determine which valve(s) are open and how much gas is being injected through them. This model is described in the paper.

Application of Surface-Controlled Gas-Lift Valves For Natural Gas Cap Lift On BHPB Lennox Field
by: Lovie, Eric; Burke, Kevin — Added 6/23/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

The Lennox field is situated 5 km off the English west coast, part of BHP Billiton’s Liverpool Bay Development in the Irish Sea.

A combination of increasing facilities back-pressure, decreasing reservoir pressure and increasing watercut prevented some of the wells from restarting after shut-in. Coiled tubing intervention was used to kick off such wells but the small unmanned platform meant that this process could only be performed on a campaign basis rather than as normal production operations, resulting in reduced oil recovery.

The solution to overcome these problems was to use the natural gas cap of the reservoir to provide lift. A surface controlled gas lift valve, the Schlumberger WRFC-H (Wireline Retrievable Flow Controller - Hydraulic) was installed in each well and it’s variable choke utilized to provide control of gas from the reservoir. Once the oil layer has been depleted the WRFC-H can be opened fully, converting the well to gas production.

Application of Systems Analysis to Sucker Rod Pumped Wells
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 9:34:27 PMGeneral - Beam Pump Diagnosis

The abstract will be available at a later date.

Applications of Downhole Sensor System for Gas Lift Well Performance Evaluation and Optimization
by: Oyewole, Peter O. — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Gas lift technology had been used extensively to dewater high reservoir pressure gas wells and tight sand formation with low permeability and productivity index (PI). However, its application in low reservoir pressure and depleted gas wells had been someway limited. Recent advancement in downhole sensor telemetry and packages, coupled with unconventional gas lift designs are enabling successful application of gas lift technology in low pressure formation.

This presentation is a case study on the application of downhole sensor for gas lift well optimization. The design covered in this presentation required high gas injection volumes at very low pressures. Adding downhole monitoring tools to the gas lift string assembly provided vital downhole pressure information. Real time downhole injection pressure, formation pressure, and downhole temperature were readily available.

Applying Fiber Optic Technology to Pump Off Controls
by: Allen B. Lindsey — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMMark

Historically, lightening and strong electrical power surges have been a problem to pump off controllers from time to time. In spite of efforts to stop these power surges such as lightning arrestors, proper grounding techniques, MOV’s, resistors, thermistors, etc., some surges still caused damage to POC circuit boards. The damage has ranged from minor to catastrophic.

This paper will discuss the application of fiber optic technology to isolate the pump off control logic board from the power supply to reduce the probability of power surge damage to the logic board. Other benefits of fiber optics will be discussed along with proper techniques to assure that power surge damage is mitigated to the fullest extent possible.

Artificial Lift Concerns for Gas Well De-Watering
by: Rober Lestz, James Lea, Chris Cos, Akani Lawal, T. Oetama and Divyakumar Garg — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Gas Wells

As gas wells deplete, it is very common for additional water and sometimes condensates to begin to accumulate in the flow path (tubing) of the well. This liquid loading reduces the gas flow rate and can even stop the flow rate completely. There are many solutions to the gas well de-watering problem, but what is the best solution? Solutions include smaller tubing, plunger lift, addition of surfactants, wellhead compression, smaller tubing, pumping methods such as beam pumping, possibly injection of liquids below a packer to an underlying zone, gaslifting of gas wells, and other methods. This problem is sometimes solved by fieldwide investigations of what has worked best in a particular field. Here considerations are presented for perhaps a newer operator, to allow a better selection of methods for lifting fluids from a gas well initially. Factors such as effectiveness, initial cost, continuing costs such as chemical costs or power costs, manpower or servicing needs, and well characteris

Automated Production Surveillance and Optimization System for Gas-Lifted Wells
by: Marin, Gustavo Ariel; Cadena, Mauricio; Vargas, Jose; Abarzue, Hector; Villanueva, Francisco — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

Today the use of smart monitoring, surveillance and diagnostics systems for different parameters of production has a crucial importance to reduce the decision making process and accelerate the actions for production optimization.

This presentation will introduce an Automated Production Optimization Solution designed to identify problems with well performance and operating conditions and optimize the production system.

The solution includes the access and management of a high volume of data from different sources that contain low and high frequency data (daily, sporadic and sensors data) with the capability of automatic data conditioning and validation processes.

Basic Plunger Lift "Will Plunger Lift Work on My Well?"
by: Derek Ellsworth — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

Plunger Lifts are one of the most cost effective and efficient ways to artificially lift fluid production from gas wells and high gas/liquid ratio oil wells. In operation the plunger travels to the bottom of the well where fluid is picked up by the plunger. The plunger acts like a swab, and is then brought to the surface removing most liquids from the tubing. It will also keep the tubing free from paraffin, salt and or scale build up. Fluid removal prevents loading and keeps the well from dying. With continual removal of all produced liquids, there is less fluid weight on the formation which results in greater gas productivity from the well. The system uses the wells own energy requiring no additional power expense. Plunger lift operating costs on the average are less than 1000 dollars per year and produce most wells to depletion.

Beam Gas Compressor Relieves Casing Pressure on Rod Pumping Wells
by: Charlie McCoy — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Surface Equipment

The Beam Gas Compressor (BGC) utilizes the energy from the normal pumping action of the pump jack. Gas is drawn from the casing during the suction cycle through check valves and is pumped (compressed) through check valves into the flow line on the compression cycle of the unit. The gas flows with liquids to the separator and to the gas sales line. The BGC is a double-acting unit and compresses gas on both the up and down stroke of the pumping unit. The BGC does not affect the counterblance of the pumping unit.

The BGC has been successful in increasing production and cash flow on low bottom hole pressure wells where a rod pump is being utilized to produce the fluids. By relieving casing back presssure we experience an increase in both gas and oil.

Beam Pump Rod Buckling and Pump Leakage Considerations
by: Henry Nickens, James Lea, James C. Cox — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

New results have appeared for downhole pump slippage predictions from fairly recent test data. Additional testing is in progress. A pump with large plunger/barrel clearances will slip more fluid. A pump with smaller clearances will slip or leak less but a tighter fit will tend to increase rod buckling at the pump to a greater degree.

Considerations for pump leakage and example calculations are presented using the older and the new pump slippage relationships. Also the effect of pump clearances on possible buckling are studied. Further additional possible causes of rod buckling are presented and discussed and compared. The results will help the reader to decide on how to size pump clearances to provide leakage for lubrication in the pump without losing too much pump efficiency. Several ideas on the source of rod buckling are presented and compared, and the reader should be left with some review of older ideas and some newer concepts on how to combat rod buckling in the operation of

Benefits of Detailed Compressor Modeling in Optimizing Production from Gas-Lifted Fields
by: Nadar, Manickam S. — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Compression management plays an important, but often overlooked role in the optimization of gas lift networks. This paper describes the role of compressors in gas lift systems and explains why it is important to accurately account for compressor performance in full field networks.

Software tools are now available to assist the engineers in the modelling and simulation of complex fields with non-hierarchical production and injection networks. These tools are capable of solving the total system network and suggesting optimum values for critical parameters such as gas lift injection rates and pressures, and production system pressures.

Recent optimization studies of complex gas lifted fields have indicated that modelling of gas lift compressors as a part of the field network can uncover opportunities that add significant value in the operation of the field.

Benefits of Slow-Speed Pumping
by: Paul Bommer, David Shrauner — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Practices

This paper presents the practical and the theoretical benefits of running a sucker rod - beam lift system as slowly as possible. The slowest speed possible is defined as the speed required to pump all the liquid the reservoir will flow into the well on a continuous basis. Operational changes to create any desired speed are shown and several field examples are used to illustrate the point. The potential savings using these methods are a greatly expanded run time, the system does the minimum amount of work and requires the minimum amount of power, the reservoir is allowed to produce at maximum rates with a minimum of down time for repairs to the rods, tubing, and pump.

Camco - The Powr of Gas - A Complete Manual on Oil Production by Gas-Lift
by: C, V. KIRKPATRICK — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

Table Of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgment
History and Background
Basic Gas Lift Valve Mechanics
Fundamental Problems in the Design of Gas Lift Installations
The Fundamental Gas Law and its Application to Gas Lift
Basic Reservoir Fundamentals and their Application to Gas Lift
Material or Volumetric Balance Principles
Design of Gas Lift Installations.
Basic Gas Lift Design Fundamentals and Terms
Valve Spacing Fundamentals
Design of a Continuous Flow Installation.
Analysis of Continuous Flow Design
Design of Intermittent Flow Installations
The Borderline Well
Design of a Rotative Gas Lift System
Gas Lift Producing Through the Annulus.
Gas Lift Producing Through Macaroni Strings
Dual Completions
Gas Lift Measurement Practices and Problems
Common Gas Lift Problems and Suggested Remedies
Economics of Gas Lift
Estimation of Oil and Water Production for Wells Having a
Constant Percentage Rate of Water-Oil-Ratio Increase.
Future Trends.
Appendix I-Solution

Case History of using Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) System on Slick line for Gas Lift Trouble shooting and Well Optimization
by: Sreekumar, M. P. — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

DPC uses the Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) system on slick line to evaluate surging problem in a gas-lifted well and whether the gas-lift unloading sequence was functioning as designed. The technology was used in five wells with different objectives. This case history will provide insight into technology and the application used.

Key learning’s are:

1. Used to trouble shoot surging wells, where conventional Flowing Gradient Survey was not possible.
2. Identified out of sequence gas lift unloading in a well.
3. A memory pressure gauge was run in tandem with DTS fiber optic cable for capturing down-hole pressure reading that helped to verify and tune the well model.

Casing Plunger Restores Production After Failed Casing leak Repair in Oklahoma Panhandle Gas Well
by: Robert L. Moore, Windel Mayfield — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Casing Plungers

A typical “PAL” casing plunger application was modified to recover fluid invasion after the unsuccessful repair of a casing leak. An Oklahoma Panhandle well experienced a casing leak and shut off gas production. Typical repair attempts to squeeze cement the leak were only partially successful. A small leak was evident due to pressure tests, but an injection rate could not be achieved for further attempts to squeeze cement the leak. Extensive swabbing failed to recover lost fluids and invasion of foreign fluids into the well bore. The tubing plunger used prior to the leak was considered impractical. The usual remedy would be rod pump and jack. A casing plunger was installed to recover both lost fluids and fluid entry after the failed casing repair. Restoration of production rates comparable to rates prior to the casing leak has been achieved. Technique modifications, production charts and economics will be presented.

Casing Plungers Successfully Replace Conventional Pump and Jack in Some Texas and Oklahoma Panhandle Wells
by: Robert L. Moore, Windel O. Mayfield — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Casing Plungers

Recent innovations in “PAL” casing plunger cup design and mechanical actuation indicated success in artificial lift applications currently using a conventional rod pump and jack. Several wells, previously produced by tubing plungers with limited success, and subsequently equipped with conventional rod pump and jack, were chosen for field testing fluid removal using casing plungers. The objective was two-fold. First, test the feasibility of a casing plunger as a possible replacement of rod pump and jack, and thereby reduce lease operating expenses. Second, compare the overall production of casing plungers with rod pump and jack performance. Early results and successful installations indicate casing plungers can be considered as rod pump and jack replacements in many applications. Casing plungers might well be considered prior to rod pump and jack installation. Production data, conversion costs, well selection criteria, and observations will be presented.

Centrallift ESP Equipment Catalog
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/9/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Catalogs

This catalog contains information on the Centrilift ESP Equipment.

CentriLift Submersible Pump Handbook
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/9/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - General ESP

The CENTRILlFT Submersible Pump Handbook is a CENTRILIFT publication compiled as an aid to engineers and production people in the Petroleum Industry who have the responsibility of planning and selecting subsurface electrically driven submersible pumping equipment.

Included are fundamental principles involving the sizing and operation of submersible pumping equipment. Also included are tables, data and general information which we hope
will be of value to everyone who utilizes submersible pumping equipment.

Much of the material in the submersible handbook has been published previously and is reassembled in this single volume for your convenience. However, we feel that there is also a considerable amount of new material included that will assist you in your selection
and operations.

Any future additions or editions will include information and revisions suggested by those of
you who use this handbook. Your comments and suggestions are cordially requested.

Permission to rep

CentriLift Submersible Pumps Catalog
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Catalogs

The Centrilift submersible is a multi-stage centrifugai
pumping unit, designed to pump large capacities
of fluid under a variety of well conditions.

It is ideally suited for installation over a wide range of depths in 4 1/2" U.D. and larger casing. The unit is composed of five basic components, each designed for maximum efficiency, minimum maintenance and
long life. They are: electric motor, seal section, centrifugal
pump, electric cable and switchboard. Fig. I
shows a typical Centrilift installation.

The Centrilift pumping unit is not only capable of
producing high fluid volumes at a low investment and
operating cost, but also is designed to resist sand,
paraffin, corrosion and scale. Since the vertical
downhole assembly is connected to the end of the
tubing string, the unit may be utilized in crooked
or slant drilled holes, It requires a minimum amount
of surface floor space and is inherently adaptable to

The unique exchange and rental policy offered

Challenges Faced by Typical E&P Companies
by: Cleon Dunham, Hal Rabbino — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

Most E&P companies or departments in the petroleum industry face significant compression in resources – both staffing and funding. These organizations are challenged to produce more oil and gas, under more difficult conditions, at lower costs, and with smaller and less well trained staffs.

This paper presents an approach known as GRASP for strategic analysis of typical E&P organizations. The GRASP method highlights the Goals, Resources, Actions, Structures, and People that such organizations must have (or acquire) and effectively deploy to successfully compete in the modern E&P environment.

This analysis can be used to address such difficult questions as:

What are the optimal:
• organizational structures for surviving and thriving in the modern E&P business
• tradeoffs in satisfying financial shareholders, employees, suppliers, and external stakeholders
• interfaces and interactions between the separate groups in the organization
• allocations of people and financial

Challenging Subsea Gas Lift Application, Offshore Norway
by: Paulsen, Magnus — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Offshore, subsea applications provide a challenging environment for gas-lift equipment. Reliability is paramount as well intervention costs lead to little or no possibility of gas-lift valve change outs.

As the industry moves to deepwater and subsea production, costs increase significantly. Front end designs must consider artificial lift depletion plans to minimize life cycle costs. Higher lift gas supply rates and pressures, combined with more stringent regulatory agency requirements and the risks associated with floating structures, elevate the importance of well-bore integrity. Gas-lift practices and hardware that have been acceptable for onshore and continental shelf operations become less financially appealing due to the high cost and risk of well-bore entries to service in-well gas lift hardware.

One such application is StatoilHydro’s Norne Satellites development with five production wells tied back to a floating production storage and offloading vessel (FPSO). Gas-

Chemical Injector for Plunger Lift
by: Sam Farris — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Chemical Topics

This patented system consists of a typical chemical pump, chemical chamber fitted atop a modified lubricator cap, all on the surface and a modified plunger available in any configuration currently on the market. The entire system has only 4 moving parts, not including the plunger. This system is capable of transporting liquid chemicals each plunger cycle. The entire system can be installed with common tools typically, during the shut-in segment of the well cycle. Field trials in two different wells in So. Louisiana over 168 days showed a reduction in metal loss (corrosion coupons before and during field trials) of 17% in one well and 3% in another well.

The system incorporates non-metallic components to reduce metal loss caused by abrasion. The system can be set up to deploy multiple chemicals with a single system, i.e., corrosion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxygen scavengers, biocides, etc. The system is more efficient than capillary strings and much more economical to install

Choice and Evaluation of Plunger Lift Systems
by: Bill Hearn — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

Choice of plunger type may be as critical as the surface equipment to optimize a plunger lift well. When considering plunger lift candidate’s decline, IPR, velocity, fluid and pressure are used to build a proper evaluation. The necessity for proper plunger lift choice in completely optimizing a plunger well can result in incremental production from an existing plunger system by as much as 500 Mcf/day by changing from a conventional plunger lift system to a high speed bypass plunger. However, a bypass plunger in a well with the wrong conditions will not result in a successful increase and may in fact hurt production.
In order to properly evaluate wells it is necessary to consider the velocity and the fluid rates for high speed bypass then change to consider more conventional methods. This paper will discuss the well evaluation process as it pertains to plunger lift applications.

Coiled Tubing Conveyance of Well Fluids to Surface
by: Humberto Leniek — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

Availability of CT as well known OCTG and the need to have new options on artificial lift prompted a CT consulting firm to investigate the use of CT to convey well fluids to the surface. While numerous test proved that CT as “hollow sucker rods” can replace conventional sucker rods and production tubing, the lack of appropriated coil tubing units to deploy and retrieve CT economically delays the application of this innovative option. The paper will discuss new CTU designs and economics related to the use of CT versus solid sucker rods, and the latest developments in artificial lift with coiled tubing.
This paper will describe laboratory testing, field application methods and case history results of the application of salt inhibiting treatments in several applications.

Coiled Tubing for Artificial Lift
by: Humberto Leniek — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

Availability of CT as well known OCTG and the need to have new options on artificial lift prompted a CT consulting firm to investigate the use of CT to convey well fluids to the surface in oil and gas wells.

The first idea consisted of a stationary CT attached to a modified rod pump to convey fluids to surface by the use of hydraulic pulses. This first approach triggers a second idea consisting in the reciprocation of CT as hollow sucker rod in rod pumping wells. Numerous tests for diverse applications are being performed with results to be covered in this paper.

Because of the consequences of these innovations, another idea was tested, this time to reciprocate a subsurface pump capable of using the full cycle of the pumping unit with either conventional rods or CT. Latest field test results are part of this paper.

by: Jeff Harris, Randy Kuiper, Elton Smith — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

Spraberry operators in West Texas have been fighting casing leaks caused by the corrosive fluids in the San Andres formation for years. Water produced by the Dean, Upper and Lower Spraberry formations is disposed of into the San Andres.

There are possibly thousands of Spraberry wells that were drilled and completed without getting cement across the San Andres. This has resulted in the P&A of many of these wells. Spraberry wells will produce 5 –10 BOD for decades, but when the corrosive waters from the San Andres cause casing leaks, it becomes uneconomical to continue producing these wells.

This paper will discuss the combination of slimhole conversion and the installation of a coiled tubing rod string system to solve the corrosion problems in wells that are usually considered P&A candidates. The development of the coiled tubing rod string system will be looked at. Case histories will also be presented.

Common Problems and Solutions Sucker Rod Pumping Applications
by: Mark W. Mahoney — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

This paper will cover common problems and misunderstandings that lead to sucker rod pumped well failures and some of the solutions to avoid failures and optimize the sucker rod pump system.

The mechanics of the sucker rod pump design and modifications to improve performance in harsh well environments and failure data collection and performance measurement will also be examined.

Comparison of Steel Sucker Rod and Fiberglass/Steel Sucker Rod String Performance
by: Elton J. Smith, T.P. Hopper, Kass Copelin — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

Usage of fiberglass sucker rods have proven to be the most efficient means of producing artificial lift wells in the Pioneer Natural Resources, Spraberry Trend Area. Fiberglass/steel designs are being installed on all new drilled wells and will remain in place for the life of the well. In this paper examples will be given of production improvements when going from an all steel to a fiberglass/steel design, various designs which decrease string weight 13 to 26%, benefits of the lighter more elastic rod and comparison of failure data. Procedures used by Pioneer will be discussed to assist operators in selecting the best design for different well characteristics.

Considerations on the Selection of an Optimum Vertical Multiphase Pressure Drop Prediction Model for Oil Wells
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 11:24:24 PMGeneral - Artificial Lift Information

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Continuous Flow Gas Lift Design as Presented in Chapter 12 – New SPE Petroleum Engineering Handbook
by: Blann, Jack R. — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Continuous Gas-Lift

This paper reviews the section on Gas Lift Design presented in Chapter 12, Volume IV, Production Operations Engineering (Edited by Joe Clegg) of the new SPE Petroleum Engineering Handbook edited by Larry W. Lake, copyright 2007. Blann was the co-author of Chapter 12 along with Herald W. Winkler. This paper reviews the basic principles of the two Continuous flow designs presented in detail in the handbook. However because of time limitations no effort will be made to actually cover the details involved in the design procedure.

Continuous Injection of Hydrate Inhibitor in Gas-Lift Gas to Mitigate Downtime Due to Downhole Annular Plugging
by: Cliver, John R.; Robinson, Chris M. — Added 6/29/2009 11:23:15 PMBradley

Significant downtime was observed on multiple gas-lifted, heavy oil wells producing to an offshore platform through vacuum insulated production tubing (VIT). Periodic increases in casing pressure resulted in loss of gas-lift injectivity followed by liquid loading. After evaluation of facility and wellbore design, hydrates were identified as the most likely cause of this downhole annular plugging. A heat transfer model was developed and used in conjunction with thermodynamic modeling software to determine the likelihood of hydrate formation in the tubing-casing annulus near the mud-line for various wellbore configurations and gas-lift gas injection rates. These models indicated that heat transfer out of the gas-lift gas into cool seawater was sufficient for hydrate formation and several potential solution approaches were evaluated. Continuous hydrate inhibitor injection was found to be the most viable approach. Implementation has proven to be a low cost solution, effectively eliminating downtime due to downhole annular plugging.

Critical Velocity Reducing System for Liquid-Loading Gas Wells
by: T. Scott Campbell — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Critical Velocity

Liquid loading in an extended perforation interval gas well is not easily fixed. Extreme perforation intervals (500 to 6,000 ft) and the larger internal diameter of the production casing often render the well incapable of producing the gas rates required for effectively lifting produced fluid to surface. Operators continually struggle with deciding where to place the end of the production tubing and choosing the best type of artificial lift system for producing these wells. The most common methods used to combat liquid loading problems in extended perforation interval gas wells are plunger lift, soap injection (either batch or capillary injection), and flow-area reduction (dead strings or velocity strings). Each of these production methods has been proven successful in fighting liquid loading problems independently of the others, but each has limitations that will reduce its effectiveness over time as well conditions change.

Weatherford has designed a new bottomhole assembly that su

Deepwater Gas-Lift: Issues and Considerations when Gas Lifting in a Deepwater Environment
by: Ghobrial, Nora — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Shell recently started up its first deepwater gas lift project at Ram/Powell and found that
gas-lifting in a deepwater environment poses a unique set of challenges. This presentation highlights the differences between Deepwater and Shelf environments including the safety issues involved and several project design and execution considerations when pursuing deepwater gas lift. Well design, facility design, and operational readiness items to consider are included.

by: Lynn Rowlan, Jim McCoy and Dieter Becker, Tony Podio — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

Tracking the fall of the plunger down the tubing can be used to optimize the operation of plunger lifted wells. Acoustic fluid level instruments can be used on plunger lifted wells to acquire a series of fluid level and plunger depth data. Five different data acquisition methods can be used to monitor the position of the plunger, as the plunger falls down the tubing during the controller’s shut-in time period. The acquired data is used to determine the 1) fall velocity of the plunger 2) depth to the plunger and 3) time for the plunger to fall to fluid. Results acquired from field case studies on 20 wells will be used to discuss how the various construction features of different types of plungers affect the fall velocity. Some construction features cause a plunger to fall rapidly through the tubing, while other features cause the plunger to have a slow fall velocity.

By accurately measuring the plunger fall velocity, then the proper shut-in time for the plunger lift installati

Developing a World Class Gas-Lift Management System – A Case History from Petroleum Development Oman
by: Peringod, Chandran; Riyami, Tariq; Clark, James — Added 6/30/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) is the main oil producer in The Sultanate of Oman, and 25% of the company’s production comes from gas-lift. About 700 wells are on continuous gas-lift with varying water cuts up to 95%. Gas-lift started in PDO in early 70’s and PDO has probably one of the longest histories of gas-lifting in the Middle East. Though PDO gas-lift was very well managed historically, most of the activities got embedded in to the routine work flows over the period of decades and this resulted in reduced focus to the technology itself and especially the new developments.

A gas-lift technology focus group (TFG) was formed in late 2006 to address the gaps in technology management. A detailed work plan was made based on the gap analysis and as a result, a massive gas-lift revamping project was undertaken. This consists of the following elements:

? Gas-lift workshop facilities and staffing
? GL material management system
? Well interventions
? Modelling, design, and opti

Diagnostic Analysis of Deviated Rod-Pumped Wells
by: Jun Xu, K. B. Nolen, LeMoyne Boyer, S. G. Gibbs — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMMark

Commonly used diagnostic methods and programs for rods pumping assume vertical wellbores. Applying these methods to deviated wells will result in distortions and inaccuracies when calculating the down-hole pump card. This paper describes a new method for analyzing pumping efficiencies in deviated wells. The method requires a deviation survey for 3D bore hole trajectory that incorporates the dogleg effect (rod/tubing drag forces) into the solution of wave equation. The program is applicable to wells with bare rods, molded on guides, and wheel-rod guides or its combination of these. Real examples are shown to compare results from both programs. The deviated program improves the accuracy of the pump card, and the card is easier to interpret. Thus, the producing pressure and pump displacement rate based on the pump card are more precise. In addition, the deviated diagnostic program can generate data that can be used to improve the accuracy of the deviated predictive program.

Do I Need a Plunger?
by: Bob Petree — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

The use of plunger lift to deliquify gas wells is an important artificial lift method to maintain and increase production. The efficacy of a plunger installation is based on several factors: the ability to confirm loading and the applicability to an individual well; the choice of the proper equipment for the most effective operation; and the maintenance of the system for optimum performance.

This paper deals with (1) various methods to identify the aspects of loading, for example, by the observation of critical velocity and the use of fluid gradients, (2) the correct choice of plungers and control equipment, and (3) the proper maintenance of the equipment (plungers, wellbore, etc.) to effect proper operation.

Downhole Gas Separators - A Laboratory and Field Study
by: Jim McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, John Patterson, Tony Podio, Omar Lisigurski — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

Downhole gas separators are often the most inefficient part of a sucker rod pump system. This paper presents laboratory data on the performance of 5 different gas separator designs. Continuous flow and intermittent flow were studied. Field data is presented on one of the designs. The field data indicates that success or failure of the gas separator is dependent upon the fluids and wellbore pressures as well as the mechanical design of the gas separator. Successful and unsuccessful examples of gas separator performance in the field are shown along with field fluid data properties. Videos will be shown at the presentation of the continuous and intermittent flow of water and air through the transparent gas separators placed in transparent casing.

Downhole Pressure and Temperature Measurement Offshore and on Land
by: Johnson, Mike — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Examples of chamber pressure gauges used offshore California and single operator, truck-mounted bottom-hole pressure units used onshore in the US.

Downhole Pump Visualization and Data Acquisition
by: P. S. Adisoemarta, C. Graf, A. L. Podio — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMMark

A novel image acquisition system has been developed that will enhance our knowledge of downhole pumps. This system, comprised of a video camera, digital frame grabber and image processing routines, has been integrated to the downhole pump test fixture at the University of Texas at Austin where, in the past, pressures at various point of interest around both the standing and the traveling valves have been recorded.

As the images and pressure information have been recorded at the same exact time, one can now look at the picture of the pump to see the actual valve movement for each interesting ‘blip’ on the pressure plot.

The outcome of this research can be beneficial in better understanding of downhole pumps, improving the life of downhole pump, and eventually reduce the cost of operation and maintenance of downhole pumps.

by: Humberto Leniek — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

The need to produce from secondary recovery wells, where large volumes of water are necessary to lift in order to produce oil, made possible an innovative artificial lift option using a dual displacement pump reciprocated either with sucker rods or coiled tubing. This paper describes a dual displacement pump and pumping systems pumping unit. The system consists in reciprocating a plunger of a down hole pump, either with coiled tubing or sucker rods, where both motions are utilized to lift fluid to surface. In the down stroke production is conveyed to surface through the annular space between sucker rods and production tubing, or through the ID of the coiled tubing. In the up stroke fluids are conveyed to the surface through the annular space between sucker rods and production tubing, or between CT and production tubing. The full use of the pumping cycle allows to produce up to 80% more fluid per unit of time, making his production system the ideal option to reduce lifting costs in

Dynamic Simulation
by: Mantecon, Juan Carlos — Added 4/16/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

This presentation discusses the best current approach for implementing dynamic simulation and establishes its potential for evolving as the sole smart design/optimisation process for complex well completions and production systems to increase oil and gas production and optimise wells, pipelines, and facilities design. In the particular case of gas lift systems, Dynamic Simulation is also fundamental for optimising the well’s unloading process (transient). Dynamic simulation of production systems at early stage is essential to identify and understand the key flow assurance issues. It allows better project definition during the concept selection, FEED and detailed design phases. Dynamic simulation of operative production systems should minimize workover intervention and wireline activities, maximize safety, as well as enable operators to optimize, accelerate, and increase the recovery through the life of the well/field.

Dynamic Simulation of Gas-Lift Wells and Systems
by: Mantecon, Juan Carlos; Dunham, Cleon; Tang, Yula — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Dynamic simulation can be used at any stage of a field’s life cycle to build a virtual model of a well and/or production system. It can be used to analyze "what if" scenarios and predict results. It can help to understand transient well behavior and determine the optimum process to eliminate or minimize transient problems that cannot be fully analyzed using NODAL® (steady state) analysis techniques. It does not replace NODAL® analysis but fills gaps where steady-sate analysis techniques cannot provide adequate solutions.

One of the relevant areas of application is for gas-lift wells and systems. In particular, it is useful for subsea and deepwater gas-lift wells, where transient issues related to flow assurance, complex wellbore profiles, long flowlines, and risers play a significant roll in gas-lift system design and production optimization.

by: A.L Podio, O. Lynn Rowlan, Jim McCoy, Dieter Becker — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Dynamometer Analysis Plots allow the graphic display of various parameters, both acquired and calculated, during a complete pumping unit stroke. At a user specified time frequency polished rod load, polished acceleration, motor power, and motor Amps data is acquired. Using the descriptive well information and pumping unit geometry many other parameters are calculated, such as pump load, polished rod position, polished rod velocity, pump plunger position, pump plunger velocity, existing mechanical and electrical net gearbox torque, instantaneous SPM, and motor RPM. These calculated and acquired dynamometer parameters can be plotted in any combination against each other versus any of the four horizontal axis parameters: polished rod position, plunger position, elapsed time, or crank angle. Analysis of operational problems can be aided through the ability to compare the various acquired and calculated data values. Frequently the standard graphic display of software programs is not

by: Art Pena, Lynn Rowlan — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Surface Equipment

The DynaPump is a unique rod pumping system that is composed of the pumping unit and the power unit. While similar to a Rotaflex pumping unit, the long stroke feature, it uses hydraulics as the lifting mechanism. The DynaPump offers several benefits such as the use of more efficient motors, smoother rod reversals, internal pump-off controller (better inflow control), etc. Several of these features were evaluated on recent well installation.

Economic Impact Resulting from Use of Casing Plungers
by: Gregg, Dvid — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Casing Plungers

Most work on the casing plunger has highlighted its concept and technology. This paper will show the true economics of applying this technology. This provides the producer a true, accurate measure to determine his decision on this concept.

Effect of Operating Valve Performance on Stability of Gas-Lift Wells
by: Fairuzov, Y.V.; I. Guerrero, Sarabia — Added 6/23/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

In this paper, the effect of operating valve design on gas-lift stability is studied. It is shown that the gas-lift stability maps proposed in an earlier study may facilitate the selection of the operating valve design. Different valve designs are considered: the conventional orifice and gas-lift valves, as well as the nozzle-venturi valve. Gas-lift stability maps are constructed for each operating valve design. Advantages and disadvantages of the considered valve types are discussed from the point of view of the gas-lift stability. Based on the comparison of the gas-lift stability maps, recommendations on the selection of the operation valve type are elaborated.

Effects of Fluid Pound on Beam System
by: F. Yavuz, J. Lea, P. Adisoemarta, T. Oetama, J.C. Cox — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Fluid pound is thought to be a result of the pump hitting the fluid level when the pump is partially full of gas. However gas always is compressed to a value of pressure sufficient to open the traveling valve before the pump hits the fluid. The load on the pump is released very quickly and the pump is traveling faster when fluid pound occurs than at the beginning of the stroke. However, most down hole dynamometer cards do not show compression when fluid pound occurs. Also, the concept that there is fluid pound with gas in the pump at low pressures and gas interference when the pressure seems to be accepted. A model and all formulas for fluid pound and gas interference is presented and programmed into a short wave equation program. All code and formulas are shown. Results of high and low intake pressures on pumping with incomplete fillage are shown on the bottomhole dynamometer card and on the rod string loading. Also, effects of pumping speed and degree of pump fillage are shown on the

Electrical Submersible Pumping ---- Referemces for Operational Problems and Their Solutions
by: Various Authors — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - General ESP

This contains various articles about ESP Operational Problems and Their Solutions.

1. SPE 19495 - Electrical Submersible Pump Optimization in the Bima Field.

2. 1990 ESP Workshop, Electrical Submersible Pump Performance in France.

3. Optimization of Submersible Pump Operation in the Bonne Glen Field.

4. A Model for Estimating the Life of ESP's.

5. East Beverly Hills Field Electrical Submersible Pump Optimization.



7. Redwater Submersible Pump
Selection Experience.



10. SPE 20675 --- Analyzing Electric Submersible Pump Failures in the East
Wilmington Field of California.


Electrical Submersible Pumps - The Amoco Way
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - General ESP

This is a document that describes:

- ESP Equipment Description and Function
- Well Preparation
- Equipment Handling
- Pulling and Installation Procedures
- Start-Up Procedures
- Reports
- Operating and Maintenance Program
- Troubleshooting

by: Dr, Gabor Takacs — Added 9/8/2009 12:00:00 AMBooks - Gabor Takacs ESP

This is a text book on ESP Design, Operations, and Maintenance.

Equations Correct Centrifugal Pump Curves for Viscosity
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 10:04:43 PMGeneral - PC Pump Design

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Erosion Effects on Gas Lift Valves in Well Discharge Operations
by: Ribeiro, P. J. P.; Lima, F. S. — Added 6/29/2009 12:00:00 AMFluid

This work presents results of a series of tests performed in a field scale laboratory focusing on erosion effects on gas-lift valves in well discharge operations. A test facility was assembled to allow the flow at different flow rates of completion fluid through valves mounted inside a test mandrel. Valves were inspected and checked for performance before and after running completion fluid through them.

Experiments were performed with commercially available orifices, venturi, and pressure valves. Results suggest that erosional damage may occur even at speeds of 1 bbl/minute in the tested valves; a value usually considered in standards and by the industry as safe for preventing erosion. These results show the need for efforts toward the development of valves able to resist erosion at high rates of completion fluid discharge, mostly for sub-sea applications, where well workover equipment is of limited availability and high cost.

ESP Gas Separators Development and Testing
by: B. L. Wilson, — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General

This paper reports on the testing and development of a new generation of gas separation technology for Electrical Submersible Pumps.

Active (rotary) gas separators were introduced to the market 20-25 years ago, and no major improvements have been made since Accurate testing of gas separators has always been fraught with problems, sometimes producing confusing and misleading information. An in-depth study and testing of the separators in a high pressure gas testing loop has indicated some methods to improve the gas separator performance.

Finite element modeling, coupled with advanced CAD/CAM and fabrication techniques, has aided in a developing a new separator. This separator has improved both the efficiency and operating range.

The information conveyed in this presentation will give the users of ESP insight into how the gas separation equipment is developed and tested and will also increase their understanding of the cost and effectiveness that can be expected in the applic

ESP Products and Services Catalog
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Catalogs

Electrical Submersible Pump products and services provided by the Electrical Submersible Pump Company, Inc.

Evaluation of Sucker Rod Pump for Sand and Gas Problems in the "Faja Petrolifera Del Orinoco", Venezuela
by: Efren Quijada, Reinaldo Figuera, Carlos Brunings — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

This Sucker Rod Pump has a short primary plunger with a long barrel and hollow tube that slides inside a short barrel; the availability of a superior traveling valve turns the equipment into a double stage pump. A pressure compensating bushing connects the primary plunger and hollow tube. From the bushing connection to the end of the long barrel an annular space exists where the gas is compressed on the upstroke and the sand and gas is forced to move instead of settling. During the evaluation of this technology 15 equipments were installed in wells from 8-11 °API in Petroleos de Venezuela, in the Eastern Division. A considerable diminution of: GOR, interference by gas and the effect gas lock were observed. Production increase on an average of 30% per well after the installation of this type pump.

Evolution Strategy Applied to Gas Lift Optimization in a Fully Dynamic Online Production Support System
by: Barroeta, Rafael; Beltran, Carlos Andres — Added 6/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

The optimization of gas-lift distribution in offshore oil fields imposes many challenges. Previous approaches to gas-lift optimization include the use of well performance curves, steady state flow models and techniques, and more recently, the use of evolutionary optimization algorithms combined with surrogate models.

The ever-changing nature of multiphase flow and the dynamic interaction of the different elements of a sub sea production system (including wells, manifolds, flow lines, risers, and separators) play a major role in determining how gas should be distributed in the different wells. The most rigorous approach to describe these dynamics is through the use of fully transient first principle simulation models. Whereas this is a well-established practice in the flow assurance community, there is no documented attempt on linking such models to sophisticated evolutionary optimization algorithms in an online environment.

This paper details a new online gas-lift optimization

Extending Run Times in Deviated Wells
by: Gary Abdo — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

A greater number of deviated wells are being drilled to increase production and prolong the life of a well. Many times the build rates are very high and result in a well that is very difficult to artificially produce. Designing a pumping system that will give extended run times is an important part of maximizing profits. Working with Crimson Resources in the Bakersfield, CA area and ChevronTexaco in the Eunice, NM area, R&M Energy Systems has completed several case studies. We will examine these studies, showing best practice and cost saving.

Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Monitoring for Gas-Lift Systems Optimization
by: Carvalho, Vinicius; White, Tommy — Added 4/14/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology has been successfully utilized in several artificial lifted wells to monitor and optimize their gas-lift systems. DTS data has been acquired using fiber optic slickline, which has proven to be a cost-effective solution to diagnose and optimize gas-lift systems, detect completion integrity issues and monitor reservoir inflow distribution.

Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology has been successfully utilized in several artificial lifted wells to monitor and optimize their gas-lift systems. DTS data has been acquired using fiber optic slickline, which has proven to be a cost-effective solution to diagnose and optimize gas-lift systems, detect completion integrity issues and monitor reservoir inflow distribution.

Fiberglass Sucker Rod and Steel Sinkerbar Rodstring Designs
by: Fred Morrow, Scott W. Long — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

This paper documents 8 years of performance of an improved artificial lift system installed in a secondary recovery project.

This improved artificial lift system matches a Fiberglass-Sinkerbar rodstring design to a specific pumping unit installed with a Pump-off Controller.

Fiberglass-Sinkerbar rodstring designs have been given little or no consideration concerning reduced downhole rod and tubing failures or power consumption costs.

The success of this improved artificial system has led to the following improvements in field performance:
1. Increased lift capacity from 20 cmpd (126 bfpd) to 100 cmpd (629 bfpd)
2. Runtimes between failure in excess of 1450 days (4.2 years)
3. Reduced power costs from .070 to .061cents/barrel
4. Lower operating expenses due to reduced power consumption, reduced maintenance costs and less downtown.

Utilization of this improved artificial lift system will increase lift capacity, reduce downhole

Field Development Planning Using a Surface to Subsurface Model
by: Gonzalez, Luis; Inda, Antonio — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

In reservoir development, selection and implementation of artificial lift is one of the key issues which must be considered when planning for the lifetime of the reservoir. There have been numerous studies of artificial lift implementation as a function of reservoir life cycle. The most common objective of such studies is to maximize recovery (reservoir optimization). It is common practice to implement artificial lift once the wells’ production declines significantly (or ceases) due to decreasing reservoir pressure or increasing water cut. Selection of the artificial lift system is often performed for that period of time, and normally is based only on the resulting increase in production rather than on a global technical-economic evaluation.

by: Elton J. Smith, Chris Holley, Scott W. Long — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

This paper compares the reduction of tubing leaks in rod pumped wells installed with non-internally coated (Bare) tubing to wells installed with internally plastic coated (IPC) tubing.

Bare tubing and IPC tubing performance has been evaluated to present the following: (1) the best tubing design to reduce tubing leaks, (2) the impact of IPC and Bare tubing on total downstroke friction and (3) parameters to better design with IPC and / or Bare tubing.

Tubing leak performance data has been evaluated from the 145 wells operating in the Preston Spraberry Unit “Best Practices” Project.

Tubing leak performance has also been evaluated for 125 Spraberry wells operating outside of the Preston Spraberry Unit.

Field Study: Verification of Advances in Beam Pumping Diagnostic Software
by: Louis Ray — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Today’s cutting-edge diagnostic software for beam pumping surveillance, analysis and optimization includes improved methodology based on time-tested techniques and practical new functionality. Specifically, this paper references dynamometer card pattern matching to aid the well analyst, lease operator, or other interested parties in understanding well operating conditions.

This technology has been available since the 1980’s, but it is now enhanced with advanced pattern matching algorithms and better presentation of results to the user. Available new functionality includes diagnostic reporting that produces a collection of outputs, which are the result of a statistical analysis of downhole-card information, calibration or predicted card information, and trended data for each beam well addressed by the diagnostic software. The purpose is to apply logic that an experienced well analyst would use to determine whether each well needs any corrective action. The diagnostic logic can be c

FieldWare Production Universe Closing the Loop on Optimization
by: Stroobant, Filip — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

In conventional practice, individual well oil, gas and water production is only measured on a weekly or monthly basis using shared well test facilities. Oil and gas production from a cluster of wells is hence difficult to manage, leading to late diagnosis of production problems and slow and conservative handling of production constraints. FieldWare Production Universe (FW PU) is a software application developed by Shell that provides continuous real time estimates of well-by-well oil, water and gas production. FieldWare PU estimates are based on data driven models constructed and updated from production well tests and real time production data.

FieldWare PU data driven well models also facilitate continuous optimization by predicting changes to overall and individual well production as a result of changes to individual lift-gas rates, well production chokes or other set-points to maximize an objective function. Well set points are then computed for optimizing oil and gas product

First Auto Gas-Lift Using Intelligent Completion Trialled in Petroleum Development Oman
by: Peringod, Chandran; Clark, James — Added 6/28/2009 8:59:29 PMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

Field A is undergoing implementation of an accelerated development plan with around 40 wells drilled so far. Due to the volatile nature of the crude and high GOR, gas recycling was identified as the reservoir pressure maintenance strategy. There are 4 gas injectors in the field injecting gas into two reservoirs. As per the original development plans, no artificial lift was envisaged and model results showed sustained self flow from the wells. However, after drilling the wells and completing them, it was found that sand connectivity and continuity was far more complicated than expected. This resulted in depleting the reservoirs in certain compartments thus requiring some form of artificial lift. Further, this field will be undergoing a gas blow down project from 2012 onwards, and therefore the challenge to the well & reservoir management team to maximize recovery before gas blow down.

A series of options were considered and gas-lift was selected as the most viable artificial lift mode. Lead time for the conventional gas-lift and the cost associated with special piping materials were adversely impacting the plans and an innovative idea of auto gas-lift was proposed as an alternate to conventional gas-lift. Accordingly, well No. XX was selected for application of this technology. Auto gas-lift uses high pressure gas from a gas reservoir and admits into the tubing using an intelligent completion & special ICV with gas trim and straddle packers. A down hole pressure gauge installed on top of the packer will assist in tuning the choke settings during auto gas lifting.

This paper will explain the technology of the Auto gas-lift, intelligent completion details used in the well, results obtained, gas-lift optimization, lessons learned and way forward for artificial lift in this field.

Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe
by: Engineering and Research Division, Crane Company, Chicago — Added 6/12/2009 11:59:05 AMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This is a Technical Paper covering the flow of fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe.

Fundamentals of Tertiary Oil Recovery
by: Herbeck, EF, Heintz, RC, Hastings, JR — Added 11/5/2009 6:03:48 PMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This is a document prepared by Atlantic Richfield Company in 1977 on the subject of Tertiary Oil Recovery

by: John C. Patterson, Nathan Leonard — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - PC Pump Design

Dewatering gas wells with progressing cavity pumps has been aggravated by gas ingestion into the pump. Typical gas anchor designs have not provided the necessary separation when the pumps are set in the producing interval to minimize the flowing bottom hole pressure. Gas and water impinging on large intake slots on the mud anchor appears to reduce the ability to separate gas. Larger slots also allow coal to enter the mud joint and plug of the dip tube. By reducing the intake slot size and adding vent holes, the gas separation performance has increased. One of the fundamental changes is to mechanically prevent gas and water entering the well bore from directly impinging on the vent holes. Case histories will be provided.

Gas Chamber Pump: “Perfection of High Volume Intermittent Chamber Technology”
by: Gossell, Steve — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Intermittent Gas Lift

Intermittent gas lift is utilized when reservoir pressure depletes below that of efficient continuous gas lift. Chamber lift is a common practice to enhance the starting slug size and increase the produced liquid rate by 2-5 times over conventional intermittent lift methods. A disadvantage of chamber lift is the large volume of gas required to lift the slug to the surface which causes system upsets on both lift gas system pressure and separation facilities; thus chamber lift historically is not applicable to offshore platforms.

Recently a refinement and simplification of a proven technology has made high volume chamber lift applicable to both onshore and offshore environments. Continuous gas lift is applied above the chamber to lift the produced fluids to the surface, so the gas required to purge the chamber is minimal. Rapid cycling of the chamber permits much higher volumes than historically associated with intermittent gas lift chambers.

Gas Lift Analysis & Production Optimization Using DTS
by: Staal, Timo; Brown, George — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

This paper describes what distributed temperature profiling using optical time domain reflectometry is, what it's for, and why it adds value. The paper highlights the early data acquired from recent deployment activities on several wells. The vision is to be able to measure the 'health' of the well using it's (distributed) temperature as an indicator, rather than waiting for a problem to develop and having to diagnose it using 'post mortem' production logging activities. A permanently installed DTS fiber will eliminate the need for production logging to optimize or verify the(mal) functioning of gas-lift valves.

Gas Lift Challenges for ExxonMobil
by: Johnson, Mike — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Examples of significant challenges that ExxonMobil has experienced or expects operating gas-lift in extended reach wells, installing gas-lift equipment and designing dual gas-lifted wells.

GAS LIFT MANUAL. ISBN 0-87814-805-1
by: Dr. Gabor Takacs — Added 9/8/2009 12:00:00 AMBooks - Gabor Takacs Gas Lift

This is a text book by Dr. Gabor Takacs on Gas-Lift Design and Operations. It is available through PennWell Publishing

Gas Lift Optimization of Long Horizontal Wells
by: Mantecon, Juan Carlos — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

The slugging flow conditions normally encountered in long horizontal wells are very difficult to predict using methods other than dynamic simulation techniques. Furthermore, when gas lift is being used to produce this type of wells, finding the cause of the slugging flow conditions becomes more challenging.

This presentation discusses terrain induced slugging flow and describes how the use of dynamic simulation techniques can predict this type of slugging and estimate slug size and frequency. Slugging cause by poor gas lift design is also discussed.

When the cause of slugging flow and the severity is known, changes in design and/or producing conditions can mitigate or eliminate slugging and optimize production.

Gas Lift Organizations Maximizing Surveillance Success
by: Fernandez, Carlos — Added 7/1/2009 2:30:31 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

As fields mature, an increasing reliance will be placed on artificial lift systems to effectively produce well volumes. As this occurs, it will become critical to ensure that the talent and technology is available to maximize the benefits of these systems. This paper seeks to review ExxonMobil’s experiences within the US Production company in building the talent required to maximize the value from gas lifted wellbores.

This paper will focus on two key topics:

(1) The training required to ensure optimal gas lift system surveillance and
(2) The need for operational expertise across an organization.

At the close of this paper/presentation the ideal organization for gas lift surveillance will be discussed.

Gas Turbine Inlet Air Fogging
by: Mee, Thomas — Added 6/23/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Inlet air fogging increases the output of gas turbines by up to 20%, depending on ambient conditions. Fogging can eliminate production losses associated with hot-day operation of gas turbines and can give a further power boost by over injecting fog into the compressor, which gives an evaporative inter-cooling effect.

The presentation will show results from inlet air fogging on dual-spool gas turbines used for driving gas-lift compressors. It will also include experience with installing fog systems on a gas-lift platform in the Persian Gulf.

The presentation will be comprehensive but not too technical.

Gas Well Deliquification Using C-25 & C-40 Pumping Units
by: Cody Pye, John Roam — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Gas Wells

Higher gas prices have presented new opportunities in gas fields. An imperative issue throughout these fields is liquid loading. This paper discusses and presents results from a low rate, low cost deliquification project. Inexpensive pumping units with a small motor and pump are installed to keep water off the formation, enabling the production of gas. This is a long term solution allowing the well to produce to its economic limit in an efficient, low maintenance system.

Gas-Lift Bellows
by: Isham, Doug — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

We manufacture gas-lift bellows beginning with seam-welding of the three tubes or plies. Additional processing brings the tubes to their final wall thickness. The tubes are telescoped together to make the three plies. The tubes are then mechanically bulge formed which starts the formation of the corrugations. A roll forming process (a mechanical spin and roll form process using grooving dies and an arbor) is done until the bellows come into final dimension specification. Final form also now defines the bellows functional characteristics. The bellows are then circumferentially circle welded to seal the plies together to make them leak proof. Units are Vacuum leak tested to detect bad product and inspected for dimensional conformity.

Gas-Lift Diagnosis Using Welltracer Survey –Successful Trials in 20 Wells of Petroleum Development Oman
by: Peringod, Chandran; Clark, James; Barboussat, Didier; Peacock, Larry; Holloway; Jeff — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

WellTracer, formerly known as CO2 WellTracer, is a method for troubleshooting gas-lift wells without the use of wireline tools. The WellTracer method is used to identify whether gas-lift valves on the production string are open or closed. It allows operators to quickly, easily, and accurately determine operating depth, whether any multipoint injection is occurring, and whether or not any gas-lift valves have failed. The WellTracer method may also be used to detect leaks in the production tubing above any fluid level that may exist. WellTracer surveys are accomplished by injecting a small quantity of CO2 (carbon dioxide) into the lift-gas stream at the wellhead and then by monitoring the CO2 concentration versus time in the produced fluid from the subject well being tested.

During the “L” field WellTracer Trial, a total of 20 wells were surveyed. All wells during the “L” field trial had between approximately 15 and 30 pounds of CO2 injected into them during the WellTracer survey. We

Gas-Lift Dynamic Simulation - Best Practices
by: Carlos, Juan; Mantecon — Added 6/23/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

These guidelines should facilitate oil and gas production companies in the decision making process on when to apply dynamic simulation as a tool. For instance, the unique features and flow assurance requirements of subsea wells and flowlines, along with the high associated capital costs, clearly merit detailed dynamic analysis for design development. Dynamic simulations provide valuable information for savings and reduction of potential problems (risk reduction) during well completions and production system kick-off operations. The knowledge of the minimum flow rates required to clean up the wells will have relevant implications on equipment selection (size) and therefore cost minimization. Furthermore, the ability to predict (what if cases) and be prepared to deal with potential problems not only can save millions of dollars but can minimise any environmental impact.

Gas-Lift for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Developments
by: Noonan, Shauna — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

The heavy oil recovery method by steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has become very prevalent in the Canadian tar sands region. Billions of dollars are being spent on SAGD pilots and commercial developments. SAGD is a thermal recovery method that utilizes twin parallel horizontal wells (one above the other as close as 5 m / 16 ft apart) with steam injected into the top horizontal well and production lifted from the bottom. When steam is injected into the upper wellbore, it creates a "steam chamber" within the surrounding reservoir. The resulting heat transfer lowers the viscosity of the oil near the steam / crude interface and allows it to drain by gravity to the horizontal production well below.

Gas-Lift in TLP Wells
by: Robinson, Jerry — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Deepwater TLP completions in the Gulf of Mexico present several challenges for traditional gas lift methods. One of the first challenges is the mere fact that these types of wells are often located in water depths that can be as much as 6,500’. This deepwater environment dictates that special consideration be given, but not limited to: (1) Method of unloading the riser section, (2) Gas lift injection pressure for kickoff and operating, (3) Gas lift injection rate requirements, (4) Gas lift mandrel running OD’s, (5) Location of subsurface safety valve, (whether gas lift mandrels will be run above, below, or both, (6) Temperature profiles for accurately predicting static and flowing temperatures for setting nitrogen charged valves, and (7) accurate reservoir modeling to predict wells’ initial and future productivity.

Gas-Lift Optimization Using Dedicated Resources and Real Time Surveillance
by: Bane, Rodney — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

This presentation will discuss ExxonMobil gas-lift optimization practices using dedicated resources, electronic measurement, and software applications. Several examples from fields around the world will be reviewed. Equipment, software and processes will be described.

Gas-Lift Orifice Valve – Safelift
by: Kleppa, Erling — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMFluid

In close cooperation with Statoil, Petroleum Technology Company AS (PTC) developed a gas lift orifice valve - Safelift - with the primary purpose of being qualified as a valve barrier with leakage requirements related to ISO 14310-V1 or better.

The valve was tested and qualified to the new ISO-17078-2, ISO-14310-V1 as well as additional and even more stringent Statoil criteria in a special validation test program.

In combination with PTC's hydraulic surface annulus valve (H-SAS), which is a gas injection valve installed in the VR profile in the production tree's unihead. The H-SAS is qualified to the ISO 10423 (API 6A) standard, thus provides two independent and extremely effective well barriers for the A-annulus. With this effective artificial lift is achieved without compromising the globally recognised barrier envelopes for producing wells.

Gas-Lift Surveillance and Optimization
by: Cramer, Ron — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

Description of gas-lift optimization/surveillance problems, opportunities and solutions in light of customer experience. Emphasis will be placed on importance of knowing what the wells are producing in real time and relating that to injection gas rates. Cost effective approaches using minimal, commodity instrumentation and interfaces between software applications also will be discussed."

Gas-Lift Valve Temperature Distribution: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis
by: Ganzarolli, Marcelo; Altemani, Carlos Alberto; Almeida, Alcino Resende — Added 5/22/2008 12:00:00 AMFluid

Retrievable gas-lift valves (GLV) like the Camco R-20 have a nitrogen-charged dome acting on the GLV bellows. This pressure is counterbalanced by the injection gas pressure to control the GLV operation. The nitrogen temperature affects the pressure and depends on both the well fluid and the injection gas temperatures. The purpose of this work was to investigate this dependence for a GLV in a side pocket mandrel.

Initially a compact thermal model was developed to estimate the thermal resistances from the dome to the other parts of the GLV. The results of this investigation indicated that the axial resistance along the GLV body was much larger than the radial resistance from the dome to the mandrel tube. This model was based on heat transfer correlations and approximations, and its conclusions needed verification by experiments.

Gas-Lift Well Diagnostics in A Non-Ideal World
by: Kinderen, Wim der — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Gas lift optimisation is easy when well and system models are calibrated and all relevant instruments and control devices are operational. It is a lot more cumbersome, but still possible, to diagnose problems and optimise the system if limited information is available. That is in particular relevant for subsea wells, where over-injecting lift gas reduces overall production. Repair of subsea instrumentation is expensive, so often an acceptable workaround has to be found. In many cases, information that is not readily available can be derived from other signals, using simple models or empirical relationships. For example, the annulus pressure correlates with injection flowrate, and - for subsea wells - the wellhead temperature drops when cold lift gas is mixed with hot well fluids. This is illustrated using actual data trends.

Gas-Lifting a Subsea Tie-back at 65 Km
by: Wittfeld, Chad; Salman, Yaser; Wim der Kinderen — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

The Penguins field is a cluster of reservoirs in the northern North Sea. The reservoir fluids range from black oil in the north at Penguin A to retrograde condensate in the south at Penguin E. The field is located at 50 to 65 km north of the Brent Charlie platform and is produced via a 16” commingled flowline. There are 4 drill centres and 9 wells in total. The reservoirs have no aquifer support; depletion drive is the primary recovery mechanism. The field has produced naturally from 2003. The need for gas-lift was foreseen in the Field Development Plan, to maximise ultimate recovery. The oil wells were therefore completed for gas-lift. These 5 wells have varying reservoir pressures, flow rates, and PVT properties.

Gas-Lifting on TLP’s
by: Ghobrial, Nora — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Shell is currently progressing several deepwater TLP gas-lift projects and has found that gas-lifting in a deepwater environment poses a unique set of challenges. This presentation highlights the differences between Deepwater and Shelf environments including the safety issues involved, the need for a holistic design approach, and several project design and execution considerations when pursuing deepwater TLP gas-lift. Well design, facility design, and operational readiness items to consider are included.

Guiberson Gas-Lift Manual - Part 1.
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 11:40:17 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This is Part 1 of the Guiberson Gas-Lift Manual.

Guiberson Gas-Lift Manual - Part 2
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This is Part 2 of the Guiberson Gas-Lift Manual.

Guiberson Gas-Lift Schematics and Drawings
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This document contains schematics and drawings of Guiberson gas-lift equipment.

Guiberson Ratiometric Gas-Lift Systems - General Catelog - 1963-1964
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 11:49:47 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This is a general catalog for the Guiberson Ratiometric Gas-Lift System.

Guiberson's Ratiometric Gas-Lift Systems - Technical Manual
by: Unknown — Added 6/12/2009 11:46:37 AMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This is a technical manual for the Guiberson's Ratiometric gas-lift systems.

Harbison-Fischer Sand-Pro Sucker Rod Pump for Downhole Fluid Production with High Percentages of Sand or Other Particulates
by: Benny J. Williams — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

The Harbison-Fischer patent-pending Sand-Pro? sucker rod pump has been successfully field-tested in some of the toughest sand production conditions and has increased the run times over previous pumps of all types. The theory of the pump will be discussed and field applications will be described. Questions and discussion from the attendees will be encouraged.

Heavy Oil Gas Lift, Using the Concentric Offset Riser
by: Szucs, Adam; Lim, Frank — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

The production of heavy oil presents a number of problems to deepwater operators. A combination of high fluid density, hence hydrostatic head, and viscosity in the risers tied back to the floating production vessel limits the oil production rate. The Concentric Offset Riser (COR) offers a solution for convenient provision of riser base gas lift all in a single arrangement. The injection of gas at the riser base mixes with and lightens the oil, and hence enhances the production rate from heavy oil reservoirs.

The COR is a pipe-in-pipe riser system suitable for subsea developments tied back to a floating host vessel. The annular space has many potential uses, one of which is gas lift. The vertical riser is tensioned at the top with a buoyancy tank, and tied back to the production vessel with a flexible jumper. Such systems are being implemented in West Africa.

The paper describes the benefits of implementing the COR design for deepwater heavy oil developments.

High Reliability Gas Lift Flow Control Devices Increase Well Safety and Reduce Well Intervention Frequency
by: Xu, Jun; Hall, Jim; Franke, William; Pastor, Guillermo; Ghobrial, Nora; Breaux, Ashby; Hunt, Tommy — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMFluid

A family of high reliability gas-lift flow control devices has been developed for use offshore Gulf of Mexico where regulatory requirement and risk are much higher than in other parts of the world. The technology provides a primary safety barrier between the tubing and casing for sour service and reduces wellbore intervention frequency for deepwater (Tension Leg Platform and subsea) wells.

This Shell patented technology uses a flow tube and a flapper as the primary flowing and sealing mechanism. The deliverables of the technology comprise an externally mounted check valve for use on the inlet of specially designed gas-lift mandrel, orifice (operating valve) and unloading valve. A series of tests, a qualification program, and modeling have been conducted to validate that the high reliability gas-lift control devices meet the test standard and acceptance criteria.

High Volume Technology for Low Volume Applications
by: Malcolm Rainwater, Randy Herring — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General

Historically, Electric Submersible Pumps were designed and manufactured for large volume applications producing from moderate depths. Low volume production (less than 400 bpd) was considered rod pump territory. Unfortunately, due to depth limitations inherent to sucker rods, rod pumping low production wells at deeper depths often becomes uneconomic due to high failure rates. Utilizing new control technology, the advent of wider vane designs, and high pressure housings, low volume ESP’s have proven successful in replacing conventional and non-conventional pumping units in today’s oil industry.

How to Find the Optimum Pumping Mode for Sucker Rod Pumping
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Beam Pump Design

The abstract will be available at a later date.

by: James N. McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, Dieter Becker, A.L. Podio — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Throughout the world the most common method used to artificially produce wells is through the means of sucker rod lift. Low producing efficiencies caused by incomplete pump fillage is the most common operational problem experienced by these the sucker rod lifted wells. Incomplete pump fillage is the result of having a pump capacity that exceeds the production rate of the well or having poor gas separation at the pump intake and a portion of the pump capacity being lost to gas interference. More efficient operations and lower cost will result, if these wells are operated with a pump filled with liquid. To operate with a full pump requires the elimination of any gas interference in the pump and requires controlling pump run time so the pump displacement will match the inflow of liquid from the reservoir into the wellbore. Periodically the operator must monitor the wells operations to insure that the pump has no mechanical problems and efficient operations are maintained as all the

HP 41C Petroleum Fluids Pac
by: The Petroleum Engineering Unit Managementy Sysytem — Added 11/5/2009 7:17:00 PMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This document describes the HP 41C programs to calculate Petroleum Engineering properties.

Hydraulic Diaphragm Insetable (HDI) Pump
by: Jaren Mangum, John Patterson — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Hydraulic Pumping

In response to customer needs, Smith Lift has developed a 1 3/4 in hydraulically driven diaphragm pump that allows the operator to insert and pull the pump without pulling the production tubing. The Hydraulic Diaphragm Insertable (HDI) pump is driven by a surface hydraulic power unit, which actuates a hydraulic cylinder down hole creating positive displacement pumping action, similar to a rod pump. The HDI pump can be installed with or without seating nipples in standard 2 3/8 in (or larger) production tubing. This paper will discuss the operation and deployment of the HDI pump along with initial results from preliminary testing including solid handling, electrical efficiency, pull and run economics, and low volume/deep pump performance.

Implementing Gas Lift Surveillance
by: Peacock, Larry — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

Continuous Gas Lift is one of the most flexible forms of artificial lift. This blessing comes with a curse. Gas Lift hides inefficiencies extremely well. Hidden inefficiencies lead to lost production, many times resulting in large production losses. Good surveillance efforts expose these inefficiencies thus increasing production in a continuous gas lift operation.
Companies that operate continuous gas lift wells often do not focus enough on surveillance. Good surveillance efforts require backing from management. A good surveillance effort requires the right data, equipment, tools and people.

Improved Designs Reduce Sucker-Rod Pumping Costs
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Beam Pump Design

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Improved Gas Lift Proposed for Hungarian Field
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 10:26:54 PMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Improving Rod Pumping Operations in a Mature Field: A Case Study
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Practices

The profitability of rod pumping operations is a direct function of the energy requirements of pumping. For maximum profits the efficiency of the pumping system must be maximized, this can only be achieved by finding the optimum pumping mode for the required liquid production rate. These principles are used in the paper by presenting a case study on improving rod pumping operations.
The project reported was conducted in a mature onshore field with 70-plus rod pumped wells. An extensive measurement program involving more than 50% of the wells was set up and pumping parameters were measured with a portable computerized system. The detailed evaluation of measurement data facilitated the detection of general and specific problems in the design and operation of the pumping installations. With the aim of improving the field-wide profitability of pumping operations, an optimization of each well’s pumping parameters was made. Calculation results showed that a field-wide power saving of about

Improving Rod Pumping Operations in a Mature Field: A Case Study
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Practices

For maximum profits in rod pumping operations the efficiency of the pumping system must be maximized, this can only be achieved by finding the optimum pumping mode for the required liquid production rate. These principles are used in the paper by presenting a case study on improving rod pumping operations.
The project reported was conducted in a mature onshore field with 70-plus rod pumped wells. An extensive measurement program involving more than 50% of the wells was set up and pumping parameters were measured with a portable computerized system. The detailed evaluation of measurement data facilitated the detection of general and specific problems. With the aim of improving the field-wide profitability of pumping operations, an optimization of each well’s pumping parameters was made. Calculation results showed that a field-wide power saving of about 17% can be anticipated if all wells operate at their most economic pumping modes.

Injecta-Box™ Injectable Packing Stuffing Box for Sucker Rod Pumping Wells
by: Ian Rimmer, Benny Williams — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Surface Equipment

The Injecta-Box? injectable packing stuffing box allows the operator to replace the packing in a stuffing box by pumping it into the stuffing box with an injection “gun” similar to a grease gun. This approach saves production downtime and labor hours as well as gives the operator greater confidence in sealing the well bore due to the reliability and robustness of the injectable packing. This paper will describe the completed Injecta-Box? testing program, the design, and the applications.

Innovative Developments in Casing Plungers Broaden Field Applications and Increase Production in Upper Anadarko Basin
by: Robert L. Moore, Windel Mayfield — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Casing Plungers

An innovative patented casing plunger offers production increases in Panhandle reservoirs. Several years ago, casing plungers were introduced to Panhandle oil & gas reservoirs. While several applications responded well, others were limited by wellbore conditions and reservoir fluids. Those problems have been addressed in a recently patented casing plunger, providing substantial increases in daily production and recoverable reserves. Design details, working models and producion data will be presented to encourage broader applications of casing plungers as reserves and bottom-hole pressures continue to decline. Current applications have been successful in all weights of 4-1/2” casing tapered strings common in Upper Anadarko Basin. Wellbore fluids of all combinations of oil, gas, condensate and water have been produced with the new casing plunger. Applications for 5-1/2” casing are also presented. Reasonable installation costs and recoverable tangible assets can be expected.

Integrated Field Modeling for Production Optimization
by: Nadar, Manickam S.; Olmstead, Clint Chester; — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Operating an integrated production network can be a complex process. Production optimization involves operating at peak performance and resource allocation to the different fields. System upsets in one field can create problems in others. Changes to operating parameters, producing wells and the network distribution systems require re-iterations of the set points for entire system for optimization.

Dubai Petroleum Company is operating four fields offshore of the United Arab Emirates. The complexity of modeling and maintaining accurate models is challenging. Dubai Petroleum Company has implemented integrated field models for the production optimization and gas distribution systems. This presentation will outline the development process and timeline used to implement such a system, the results and benefits of the optimization and how it has impacted the business of the company. Finally, progress towards the next logical step - real time optimization.

Integrated Gas-Lift System Optimization Using Dynamic Simulation: A West African Subsea Field Case
by: Nass, Maria Alejandra — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

In this study a dynamic multiphase flow simulator was used. Emphasis was placed on modeling the dynamics of the integrated production system. The study allowed establishing the deepest injection point based on the available compressor pressure for a range of gas lift rates. Another objective was to assure that instabilities in the flow regime (i.e. slugging) would be avoided by choosing the right depth for the operating valve in all of the wells; additionally, maximizing oil flow rate as excessive gas lift rates can hurt production.

Having the system as an integrated model (wellbores, annulus for gas lift injection and flowlines) allowed accounting for the possible interaction of each element and helped in determining an optimal setting depth envelope for the gas lift valves based on early, mid and late field life production data.

Integrated Workflow for Design and Analysis of Gas-Lifted Wells
by: Chokshi, Rajan; Molotkov, Roman; Zdenkovic, Nick; Stephenson, Greg — Added 6/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

In order to design a proper gas-lift system it is important to follow a design workflow, which includes the following steps:

• Identify system capabilities in terms of Absolute Open Flow Potential (AOFP), available injection pressure and maximum lift gas injection rate,
• Validate PVT data to ensure applicability and integrity of fluid property correlations/models,
• Validate gradient correlations by comparing flowing gradient surveys against model calculation results,
• Determine system deliverability (or equilibrium point) using a NODAL or System Analysis approach,
• Determine equilibrium point variance with changing well conditions by running sensitivity against system parameters like water cut, reservoir pressure, productivity index, tubing size, lift gas quantity, injection pressure, or modeling parameters like flow correlations,
• Design a gas-lift installation for a particular (or a set of) equilibrium flow condition(s).
• Ascertain design tolerance against future chan

Intelligent Agents for Gas Lift
by: Neil de Guzman; Lafferty, Larry — Added 6/28/2009 8:48:02 PMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

Official Abstract Link Broken.

Short Summary:
The goal of intelligent agents is to optimize gas lift performance. The means by which they are accomplishing this is through their software which has experience program and learned in. The program will monitor, assess, recommend and explain based on the inputted experiences which included 70 abnormal instances and past experiences.

Intelligent Oilfield Operations
by: Saputelli, Luigi; Lopez, Ivan; Nunes, João Otávio L.; Ribeiro, Lidiana M. N.; Araújo, Turiassu — Added 4/15/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

There is an increasing interest from operators to optimize production costs as oil and gas fields get mature. In that sense, there has been an increasing interest from operators to automate facilities and promote the use of continuously acquired data to better manage reservoirs. Smart reservoirs and real time management of wells and facilities has been the flag that could fetch the oil industry to this century. However there is a need for more data and processes integration tools that allow better use of technology and permit optimum informed decisions. We present in this paper the application issues of well-known technologies for the optimization and control of production operations, such as integrated data management and collaborative web portals.

Intermittent Gas-Lift Applications
by: Martinez, John — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Intermittent Gas Lift

Intermittent gas lift is a good application in low reservoir pressure wells that benefit from batch or slug production. The reservoir pressure or productivity has declined and the attainable flowing bottom hole pressure cannot effectively lift the continuous flow column of fluid.

The batch production technique allows the gas slug to lift a liquid slug, yet the column is mostly gas after the slug surfaces, which causes bottom hole pressure to be low and permits the reservoir to feed another small slug into the wellbore.

Data from testing will give the characteristics of the intermittent gas lift batch process. Application guidelines will be given for appropriate usage of intermittent lift.

Introduction to Hydraulic Pumping
by: Wilson, PM — Added 11/5/2009 7:29:55 PMWinkler Library - Hydraulic Pumping

This is a document produced by Kobe, Inc. covering an introduction to artificial lift with hydraulic pumping.

IPO Gas-Lift Design Using Valve Performance
by: Decker, Ken — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

Gas-lift design has been practiced for many years using the Thornhill/Craver (T/C) equation to predict the amount of gas passage for a particular port size. This practice has been fairly successful but, the T/C equation and chart was never intended for use with live gas-lift valves.

Valve performance is much better understood now and methods are available to accurately predict gas-lift valve flow passage. To date, a design technique has not been provided for the use of this information during the design stage. It is the purpose of this presentation to provide that technique.

ISO 15136-1:2009 Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Progressing cavity pump systems for artificial lift -- Part 1: Pumps
by: ISO Work Group 4 Members — Added 11/30/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - PC Pump Design

Petroleum and natural gas industries -- Progressing cavity pump systems for artificial lift -- Part 1: Pumps

(Swiss Francs) CHF 208,00

General information

Number of Pages: 111
Edition: 2 (Monolingual)
ICS: 75.180.10

Status: Published Stage: 60.60 (2009-11-17)

TC/SC: TC 67/SC 4


ISO 15136-1:2009 provides requirements for the design, design verification and validation, manufacturing and data control, performance ratings, functional evaluation, repair, handling and storage of progressing cavity pumps for use in the petroleum and natural gas industry. ISO 15136-1:2009 is applicable to those products meeting the definition of progressing cavity pumps (PCP) included herein.

Connections to the drive string and tubulars are not covered in ISO 15136-1:2009.

ISO 15136-1:2009 establishes requirements for characterization and testing of stator elastomer material, design validation and functional evaluation and provides information for PCP elastomer select selection and testing, installation, start-up and operation guidelines, equipment selection and application guidelines, functional specification form, used pump evaluation, drive string selection and use, repair and reconditioning procedures and auxiliary equipment.

Equipment not covered by the requirements of ISO 15136-1:2009 includes bottom-drive systems except for the PCP components, drive-string components and auxiliary equipment such as tag bars, gas separators and torque anchors.

ISO Document Development Process
by: Bijkhuis, Bert — Added 7/1/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

The International Standards Organisation (ISO) strives to issue standards with a worldwide acceptance. To achieve such a widespread use of ISO standards, participating countries introduce completed and approved standards into their national regulations through their national standard organisations.

ISO is organised in Technical Committees (TC) covering specific areas. As these areas themselves are quite wide, a further division in Subcommittees (SC) and working groups (WG) has been established. This is done to fence off working fields that can be handled by a specific group of experts. Sometimes working groups (WG) are supported by task groups (TG) preparing standards on specific equipment items.

Approved standards are published as International standards (IS) by the ISO central secretariat (CS) in Geneva, Switzerland.

ISO is supported by 157 member countries in three categories (member bodies, correspondent members, subscriber members). Member countries are participating in a

ISO Gas-Lift Standards
by: Dunham, Cleon — Added 4/22/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - API, ISO Gas-Lift

The International Organization for Standards (ISO) is producing gas-lift standards for the gas-lift industry. Currently, four standards are being developed:

• ISO 17078.1 – Side-pocket mandrels. Published by ISO in Dec. 2004.

• ISO 17078.2 – Flow control devices for side-pocket mandrels. First draft completed; starting international review process.

• ISO 17078.3 – Running, pulling, and kick-over tools, and latches for side-pocket mandrels. Being drafted.

• ISO 17078.4 – Practices for side-pocket mandrels and related equipment. Being drafted.

The existence of these standards will:

• Permit the user/purchaser to specify the equipment quality that is required for each specific application.

• Be assured that each piece of equipment is manufactured and tested according to specific requirements.

• Assure that new equipment suppliers who claim to meet these standards are required to demonstrate compliance with these standards.

Jet Pumping Oil Wells
by: Petrie, HL, Wilson, PM, Smart, EE — Added 11/5/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Jet Pumping

This is a three-part article on jet pumping oil wells.

Part 1 - Design theory, hardware options, and application considerations.

Part 2 - Hand held computer programs for installation design.

Part 3 - How design calculations compare with actual field performance.

Keeping ESPs Primed in High Volume Gas Wells
by: John Mack, Greg Robl — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General

Wells used for gas production can present many problems for ESP systems. Extended duration gas slugs can cause pumps to lose prime and cycle on and off.

This paper deals with one lease holder’s attempts to produce gas with an ESP system in place. New Dominion has wells with gas slugs lasting one to three minutes and longer. Working with a manufacturer, a solution was developed that (when properly sized) can balance the well and allow production of gas without constant system shutdowns.

This paper examines two case histories involving inverted shrouds as long as 450’. While producing as little as 900BWPD, output rose to 600MCFD of gas before leveling off at 400MCFD.

This information will be beneficial to anyone wishing to use ESPs who is having problems with gas slugs in vertical or horizontal applications.

Kope Field Manual for Hydraulic Oil Well Pumping Systems
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 2:54:22 PMWinkler Library - Hydraulic Pumping

This manual explains the Kobe Hydraulic Pumping System, tells how to
operate a Kobe installation, anc provides instructions covering such maintenance work as is normally done in the field.

Part I covers the fundamental hydraulic principles upon which the operation of the Kobe System is based, and describes the design and operation
of the several elements of the system.

Part II provides detailed instructions covering the operation of the four
most widely used types of Kobe installations, and also covers field maintenance

Should questions or problems arise which are not covered in this manual,
or should clarification of any point be required, contact the nearest
Kobe representative or write Kobe, Inc., 3040 E. Slauson Ave., Huntington
Park, C&lifornia.

Kuparuk Gas-Lift Optimizer
by: Martin, Kenneth — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

In 2005, ConocoPhillips Alaska installed a near-real-time optimization system at Central Processing Facility 3 in the Kuparuk River Unit.

This system, based on Petroleum Experts GAP software, is connected to the local automation system through proprietary software and Petroleum Expert's OpenServer product.

The new optimizer replaced an existing company-developed optimization program which used the "equal-slope" method of gas-lift optimization.

Central Processing Facility 3 is constrained on the amount of gas that can be processed, and within these constraints the optimizer was able to predict an increase of 200 BOPD over the existing system which did not account for back pressure.

This presentation will discuss the development, implementation, and initial results of the optimization system.

Laboratory Tested Downhole Gas-Solids-Liquid Separator
by: Delwin Cobb, Roy Arterbury — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

This paper reviews the design features and laboratory tests for a unique downhole gas-liquid-solids separator. The objective of this project was to develop a combination gas-anchor and desander that would efficiently remove gas at relatively high flow rates.

The device can be used with PCPs and rod pumps for a wide range of conditions. A shroud is required to use this separator with ESPs or ESPCPs. Scaled-model tests were used to evaluate the unit at high flow rates. Configurations that produced low efficiencies are also presented.

Lagrangian Transient Two-Phase Flow Simulator for Gas-Lift
by: Choi, Kwon Il; Alves, Ibere Nascentes — Added 4/16/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Applying the Lagrangian model to simulate transient phenomena in Gas-Lift has proved very successful for studying unloading, instability, optimization and even effective gas-lift valve spacing. Other field operations that have been simulated include shut-in and start over. On the other hand, for showing its realistic and dynamic gas fraction distribution, the simulator has been used also as a good visual gas-lift training program. The presentation of this work includes some sample live simulations addressing main issues relating to Gas-Lift.

Long and Slow Versus Short and Fast; Is There a Preference for Sucker Rod Lift Optimization?
by: Norm Hein — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

There has been the concept that a long stroke and slow pumping speeds are the best way to design sucker rod lifted wells. Typically, longer fatigue life is one of the reasons to rationalize this practice. Additionally, slow versus fast pumping speeds are relative numbers. This paper will discuss the various operating concepts, the background on pumping equipment capabilities, maximum design considerations and provide rod string design comparisons showing rod loading and power comparisons resulting in new considerations for optimizing sucker rod lifted wells.

Macco Production Equipment
by: Macco Oil Tool Company, Inc. — Added 11/5/2009 7:02:28 PMWinkler Library - Gas-Lift Topics

This document describes the gas-lift tools manufactured and marketed by Macco Tool Company.

Maximizing Net Present Value in Mature Gas Lift Fields
by: Mora, Oscar; Startzman, Richman A.; Saputelli, Luigi; Ribeiro, Lidiana M. N.; Nunes, Joao Otavio L. — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Advances in mathematical modeling and real-time monitoring have made it possible to more realistically and accurately simulate and measure the future physical behavior and economic performance of gas lifted oilfields. Mature fields, with installed gas lift facilities (e.g. compressors, flowlines, downhole valves) and reliably calibrated reservoir and facility flow models present a favorable opportunity to apply improved and more general optimization methods.

This paper describes a new approach for optimizing gas lift operations in mature oilfields.

The new approach maximizes Net Present Value by integrating mathematical models that describes the behavior of the reservoir, the behavior of the fluid gathering and gas lift systems, and the future economic performance of the field operating under gas lift.

by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/8/2009 8:52:24 PMGeneral - BP General Topics

This is a text book by Dr. Gabor Takacs on Sucker Rod Pumping. It is available through PennWell Publishing.

Modification of Vogel’s IPR Curve for Saturated Oil Reservoirs
by: Stacy Caldwell, Scott M. Frailey, James Lea — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Art. Lift Computer Sys.

Vogel’s inflow performance relationship relates the flowing well pressure to production rate for solution-gas drive reservoirs. Because two-phase flow exists, the graph of bottom-hole flowing pressures versus oil production rate results in a curved line. This trend accounts for the decrease in production as more gas comes out of the solution.

Vogel assumes the initial reservoir pressure is the same as the bubble point pressure for the starting point of the IPR curve. This implies no gas has initially come out of the solution, i.e. the reservoir is at bubble point pressure. Reservoirs containing a gas cap have an initial reservoir pressure below the bubble point. Traditionally, Vogel’s inflow performance relationship has been applied to these reservoirs using the reservoir pressure as the starting point for the curve. However, due to the presence of gas at the initial reservoir pressure, this is not an accurate assumption. This paper modifies the Vogel IPR curve for use in wel

Multi-Phase Pump in West Texas
by: Rod Collins, Reg Prostebby — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Multi-Phase Pumping

Formation gas and viscous fluids have long been important but difficult to deal with aspects of bottom hole rod pumps. These have been a variety of different pump designs to address these issues individually. Many of these designs have had drawbacks including effectiveness, service life, and a limited range of application. A new pump has been developed which performs well in widely varying applications. Originally designed for heavy oil, this pump has been reengineered for use in conventional light oil wells that have tried other gas control devices with little or no success. The results so far have been very encouraging.

This paper outlines the principles of operation of the Multi-Phase Pump along with the evolution of design. The reengineer of this pump has made it particularly adept at producing foamy/gassy fluids with low fluid gradients and pump intake pressures. Applications, materials, and system sizing will be discussed, and a few case histories are presented.

Multi-Staging Wells: Why Running More Than One Plunger Could Help Your Well?
by: Chandler Frost — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Two Piece Plungers

Multi-staging a well with more than one plunger utilizes more of the well’s energy to lift fluid. Setting a Multi-stage tool in a well with a collar stop or tubing stop allows for one plunger to lift below the tool and one plunger to lift above the tool. By staging the well with a multi-stage tool, the fluid load on each plunger is lifted to a shallower depth. The bottom plunger lifts fluid to the tool which is caught with a standing valve. The second plunger then lifts that fluid to the surface. All of the head gas above the liquid level is sellable gas, but is wasted energy. By staging the well, part of the head gas can be used as an energy lifting source. The multi-stage tool can be used in many different types of wells.

Multi-Well Management Systems, Part Two - Methods for Maintaining Peak Performance in Old Gas Fields
by: Richard Reese — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Gas Wells

Are your gas wells operating at peak performance? Are down-hole or reservoir problems unknowingly keeping your well from producing at its maximum capacity? This paper will address these problems by introducing quick methods of identifying underperforming gas wells and then diagnosing them to determine how to increase their productivity. The use of simple “production indicators” will be illustrated as a way of quickly sorting through large numbers of producing gas wells, and short listing those with potential problems and uplift opportunities. Some of the problems addressed include liquid build-up in the wellbore, skin buildup in the completion or near wellbore reservoir rock, paraffin, scale, or tubular restrictions. Quick ways of diagnosing these problems will be illustrated with examples. A brief review of techniques from the first paper on this subject, MULTI-WELL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, Part One – Gas Well Operations, which was given at the 2004 SWPSC, will also be summarized and shown

My Gas-Lift is Successful Because…
by: Hall, Jim — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

Safe and profitable oil production via gas lift can be achieved through application of an appropriate blend of people, hardware and processes.

The “people” component includes management, technical staff, operations and the organisational structure that defines their relationships. The first requirement is for managers who are informed of the importance of gas lift to achieving production targets and are committed to delivering the resources to support gas lift production levels, present and future. As necessitated by the well and reservoir management process, individual asset technical specialists will be trained and capable in gas-lift technology. An often overlooked, essential part of the team are the Operations staff who operate the wells and facilities, report observations, and perform proposed work programmes…often in difficult conditions.

New Control Technology for Progressing Cavity Pumps
by: Kelly Woolsey, Andy Cordova, Jeffrey DaCunha — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - PC Pump Design

Variable Speed Drive technology has been adapted to work with rod pumping to increase run life, decrease failures and reduce operation costs. This paper will show the technology being used and show several examples of systems installed and the benefits from this technology.

New Design API Modefied Sucker Rod Connection and Methods and Systems for Precise Sucker Rod Connection Makeup - An Update
by: Carstensen — Added 9/19/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

At the 50th Annual Southwestern Short Course in 2003, a paper was presented titled “New Design API Modified Sucker Rod Connection and Methods and Systems for Precise Sucker Rod Connection Makeup”. This paper is an information update of continuing development and field applications of the four part api modified connection system in pcp and beam pumping wells. The paper also includes a study of in-plant single end coupling makeups on the three part standard api couplings employing the “precision coupling makeup system” where volumes of used inspected api number one class sucker rods of all sizes and grades were returned to field service. The study also contains an analysis of the mechanical and economical benefits of receiving the rods at the rig site with the couplings properly made up on one end and performing a single end makeup with the rod tongs at the workover rig, as opposed to the standard practice of the “floating coupling” or double end connection makeup.

by: Ken Carstensen — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

The steel API sucker rod connection design used in beam and progressing cavity pumping systems has been an industry standard since the 1920’s. During these many years of continuous use, improvements have been made both large and small, yet this three part connection system is responsible for the majority of rod string failures. After 3 ½ years of development we now bring to the industry a new API modified four part design with a method and system for precise makeup which expand load bearing capabilities and extend the working life of sucker connections. This paper describes development and testing work performed, information acquired, systems and methods created, and how the new API modified connection solves problems, eliminateS or greatly extends time between failures keeping work over and associated costs to a minimum.

by: LeMoyne Boyer, Doneil Dorado, Andy Cordova — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Dynamometers have been used for many years to analyze beam-pumped wells. The evolution from mechanical systems to modern computerized systems have provided the industry with sophisticated dynamometers for the diagnosis of wells. Typical systems require significant capital outlay and specialized training for proper use; this has limited the use of dynamometers for diagnosing wells. This illustrates a need in the industry for a simple, accurate dynamometer data-gathering tool which is easy to setup and use.

This paper describes a new self-contained system which can record surface and pump cards on a well within minutes of arrival at the well. It automatically calculates inferred production based on the pump card. It also allows the operator to record valve checks, counterbalance, and perform pump leakage calculations without an on-site computer. All data can be brought to the office and transferred to a computer for further analysis if needed.

New Sucker Rod Pump for Fluid and Gas Production, Gas Vent Pump
by: Benny J. Williams — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

This paper will describe a new, patent pending sucker rod pump for gas separation and fluid/gas production. The Gas Vent Pump? utilizes a new concept of gas separation that is separated from the pumping action of the sucker rod pump. This is an “open” system type of sucker rod pumping, which is more efficient with respect to gas separation than previous methods. The theory of operation will be detailed and case studies will be shown to demonstrate the applications for the Gas Vent Pump.

New Technologies for Progressing Cavity Pumps
by: Richard L. Adair, Ted Kramer — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - PC Pump General

Progressing cavity pumps have been used on an application-limited basis throughout the world for the past twenty years. A vast majority of these systems are deployed in Canada and South America, producing heavy, viscous oil with high sand content. Product development and numerous specialty ancillary products have most generally been tied to the heavy oil production. A few of the ancillary products such as spin-thru rod guides, torque anchors, heavy-duty wellhead drive, etc., transcend across application boundaries; however, the heavy oil market dominates most of the research and case studies.

This paper will focus on P C pump product enhancement and design changes for applications that are more typically encountered by US operators. These wells can be grouped into the following: secondary recovery, light oil, high water cut, high volume, or water source wells and coal bed methane applications. These wells require a different philosophy and certainly different pump geometries th

Oil and Gas Production, and It's Engineering Problems
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/5/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This is a summary produced by Humble Oil and Refining Company (forerunner of ExxonMobil Company) on the various challenges in producing oil and gas.

Optimising Production on Mature Gas-Lifted North Sea Assets – A Case Study
by: Ballantyne, Grant; Shere, Andrew; Handley-Schachler, Sybille — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

This paper discusses the application of production optimisation to some of Talisman’s mature, gas-lifted North Sea assets. For the Claymore, Piper, and Clyde assets, the challenge was to increase production by optimising the usage of current wells and infrastructure with appropriate capital investment.

This paper illustrates how these challenges were met by building integrated detailed optimisation models using a commercially available software package. It shows how facility and production constraints were taken into account during the optimisation process to ensure that optimisation results were directly applicable to field conditions and how the asset model was able to predict and describe the complex interdependencies between wells, processing facilities, and gas-lift compressors and equipment.

Optimization of Well Clean-up Operation Using Gas Lift
by: Mantecon, Juan Carlos — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Well clean-up performance is evaluated, using dynamic simulation techniques, investigating the minimum stable rate and time required to clean up the wells in the MODU or FPSO when opening the well to production. Different initial drilling fluid conditions (brine-diesel) can be analyzed and the minimum gas lift rate required to unload the well can be established.

The knowledge of the minimum flow rates required to clean up the wells enabled appropriate design and sizing of well test equipment. Dynamic modelling can indicate if a standard well test package may be adequate for cleaning up a well completion or a high rate well-test package costing significantly more will be required. Dynamic modelling can indicate if gas lift is required to unload a well and/or a well-flowline-riser system full of fluids to a FPSO, and determine the minimum gas lift rate required.

Optimizing Gas Lift Equipment with CFD Techniques
by: Mendes, Rafael; Almeida, Alcino R. — Added 3/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

The present work explores the use of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques to improve performance of gas lift devices. Two cases involving high gas flow rate in gas lift applications were analyzed: pressure loss in the gas flow through the check valve of a venturi gas lift valve and the possible increase in oil production due to the simple change on the direction of the lift gas injection from downwards to upwards.

The results obtained with this numerical tool proved its value solving this class of problems and its potential for future applications. In the first studied case the check valve geometry was improved, resulting in a better overall gas lift valve performance. It was also shown that even when using optimized check valve geometry there is a limit in gas flow rate.

Optimizing Plunger Lifted Wells by Acoustically Tracing the Plunger Fall
by: O.Lynn Rowlan, J. N. McCoy, Dieter Becker, A. L. Podio, Norm Hein — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

Tracing the fall of the plunger down the tubing can be used to optimize the operation of plunger lifted wells. On plunger lifted wells an acoustic fluid level instrument can be used to collect a series of fluid level shots down the tubing to monitor the position of the plunger, as the plunger falls down the tubing during the controller’s shut-in time period. The collected data is used to determine the 1) fall velocity of the plunger and 2) time for the plunger to fall to fluid.

By accurately measuring the plunger fall velocity with an acoustic fluid level instrument, then the proper shut-in time for the plunger lift installation can be determined. The plunger trace measurements will ensure that the plunger has reached the fluid at the bottom of the tubing by the end of the shut-in period. Setting the well’s controller to have the shortest possible shut-in time period can maximize oil and gas production from plunger lift installations.

Optimizing Sprayberry Operating Practices
by: Eric Brown, James Franklin, Paul Porter, Perry Stegall, Robert Younger III — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMMark

Reducing failures and maintaining production are keys to success in the Sprayberry Trend. This paper will present results of an ongoing effort to optimize automation, reduce failures and resolve pump inefficiencies. The automation system is currently used to identify failures and production system problems. Failure reduction focused on wear and paraffin related issues. Pump inefficiencies concentrated on minimizing gas interference through the pump. The results from these combined practices will be summarized.

Optimizing Subsea Well Discharge Operations – Case Study Using Flowlift2
by: Lima, D. D. S.; Oliveira, G. P. H. A. — Added 6/29/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

This work presents a simplified model for dimensioning of sub sea well discharge operations through the wet Christmas trees, via the pig crossover valve. The model is supported by numerical simulation using PETROBRAS in-house software FlowLift2, and will be demonstrated through a case study.

FlowLift2 simulates transient black-oil two-phase flow and allows the monitoring of the evolution of relevant variables during the discharge operation time, such as pressures, velocities, and volumetric fractions throughout the production system.

This model allows the optimization of the discharge operation that promotes the anticipation of production wells start up. Furthermore, this study is relevant for ultra deep water production scenarios, where, in some cases, is not always possible to perform well discharge directly through the gas lift valves, due to pressure limitations of the compression system.

Overview of Beam Pump Operations
by: James F. Lea, Lynn Rowlan, Jim McCoy — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Artificial Lift Information

Beam pumping systems are the most commonly applied world wide artificial lift method. This paper reviews many of the concerns that operators face when using the sucker rod pumping system. The beam pump concerns are introduced with a review of the advantages/disadvantages of the system. Next automation and POC are discussed. What are the most commonly automated operating parameters are examined and the technique of configuring POC set points is illustrated. To maintain efficient operation requires that pumping should be done only when the pump is filled with fluid. Methodology for designing to efficiently produce the well by selecting pumping speeds, stroke lengths and plunger diameters are reviewed.

Incomplete pump fillage, tagging on the downstroke, and other downhole conditions contribute to rod buckling and subsequent accelerated rod/tubing wear. Commonly applied solutions such are weight bars and rod guides are stated. Dynamometer cards, particularly calculated downhole pu

Oxy Computer Model Experience in Qatar
by: Mathews, Lee — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Occidental Petroleum of Qatar, Ltd. (OPQL) operates the Idd El Shargi field located offshore Qatar under a PSA from Qatar Petroleum (QP). Production is from 100 producing wellbores, located on 40 assorted tripod and nine-slot jackets. Gas lift is the primary lift mechanism with a few wells still naturally flowing. The production is delivered from the remote jackets to the PS-1 production station through a very complex and interactive gathering system of forty-four subsea pipelines. The pipelines vary in size from a single 6” line to 20” pipelines.

by: Preston Abbott, Gordon Gates — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Two Piece Plungers

Plunger lifts are used widely to remove liquids from gas wells. The Pacemaker plunger is a new approach to this traditional method of artificial lift. Traditional plunger lifts require shut-in time for the plunger to fall and to build pressure to drive the plunger to surface. Shut-in time equates to lost production and forces liquids back into the formation. The Pacemaker only requires 5-10 seconds of shut-in time per cycle, and no pressure build-up time. The plunger operates as two interdependent pieces. Each falls separately and can do so against significant gas rates. Once on bottom, the ball seals off in a cavity in the piston. Gas rate then drives both to surface. At the surface a rod in the lubricator separates the ball from the piston, and the next cycle begins. The end result is that the well produces continuously and liquids are not forced back into the formation.

Pack Off Gas-Lift Installations Enhance Production in an Older Field
by: Hilse, Ken — Added 5/22/2008 12:00:00 AMBradley

Changing well environment during the life of a well has a great impact on the wells producing capability. In artificial lift installations these changes can render the original design obsolete. In the gas lift method of artificial lift, there are many methods to apply the application. One method consists of installing pack off gas lift stations in a well by using standard wireline equipment, tools and procedures. The configuration consists of a gas lift valve installed between upper and lower sealing elements. Pack off equipment can be installed in a well to isolate holes in the tubing, introduce gas lift equipment in wells that are not currently completed with gas lift valves and to add additional gas lift stations to installations where the gas lift design is no longer sufficient to produce the well in an optimum manner.

by: Anibal Verdier, Jorge Miliathanakis — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - PC Pump Automation

The problem studied was well conditions and free gas on the annular space, generated foam (emulsion), which distorted level measurements with the echometer, causing over-production of the well, and pump damage for lack of fluid.

Downhole pressure sensor was installed, to sense real intake pressure. This electrical signal was sent to a variable frequency drive that had a PID controller. The PID received the pressure signal, compared with the desired intake pressure, and adjusted the speed of the pump to maintain that set point. Also, the variable frequency drive controlled torque, avoiding breaking the rods.

Optimum production rate was found, eliminating failures due to lack of fluid and rod problems. Comparison was done between the real pump intake pressure (measured by sensor) and the level shots; variations of up to 50% were found. This information has been extrapolated to other similar wells.

PerfLift – Gas-Lift Case Studies in Gas Well De-watering Applications
by: Rouen, Robert — Added 6/24/2008 12:00:00 AMGas Wells - De-Watering

This presentation will review the application of perforation gas-lift (PerfLift) and case studies for numerous U.S. land wells. This unique gas-lift system allows operators to unload and produce oil or gas wells in the perforated intervals by increasing the critical velocity required to maintain and increase production. The novel tool string geometry allows for gas injection and gas-lift functionality below the production packer.

The applications reviewed in the presentation include installations in 4-1/2-in. (2 completions), 5-1/2-in. and 7-in. casing strings that have netted sustained gas production while maintaining continuous water production that would normally prevent the wells from flowing. The success of these installations provides a solution to the prevalent gas well de-watering problems existing in Brownfield markets while expanding the applicability of gas-lift systems.

PerfLift – Gas-Lift Case Studies in Gas Well De-watering Applications
by: Rouen, Robert — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGas Wells - De-Watering

This presentation will review the application of perforation gas-lift (PerfLift) and case studies for numerous wells. This unique gas-lift system allows operators to unload and produce oil or gas wells in the perforated intervals by increasing the critical velocity required to maintain and increase production. The novel tool string geometry allows for gas injection and gas-lift functionality below the production packer.

The applications reviewed in the presentation include installations in 4-1/2-in. (2 completions), 5-1/2-in. and 7-in. casing strings that have netted sustained gas production while maintaining continuous water production that would normally prevent the wells from flowing. The success of these installations provides a solution to the prevalent gas well de-watering problems existing in Brownfield markets while expanding the applicability of gas-lift systems.

Performance Characteristics of the Mark II Improved Geometry Pumping Unit
by: Doyle, David; Atwell, Dewayne; Hunt, Cecil — Added 9/19/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Surface Equipment

The paper will discuss the fundamentals of the Mark II pumping unit and the torque analysis. Comparisons will be made to other types of pumping units to show where this unit will have a reduced torque and additional operational benefits to the operator.

Permian Wasson Clearfork RMT "DynaPump Project Update"
by: Saul L. Tovar, Larry Smith — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Surface Equipment

The Dynapump is a means of artificial lift that has been gaining recognition in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico over the past two years. The Dynapump is a hydraulic, ultra long stroke pumping unit that has heavy lift capabilities. The use of solid-state electronics and computerization lower energy costs while giving new flexibility to the artificial lift process. The pumping cycle is optimized through consistent feedback of surface and down hole conditions. The DynaPump's capability to independently adjust the speed of the up and down strokes and change stroke lengths during changing operating conditions result in well optimization while reducing surface and down hole maintenance. The result of the DynaPump design and pumping concept results in an overall reduction in artificial lift costs.

PETR 3033 Fracturing Lecture
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 2:59:39 PMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This is information from a Petroleum Engineering Course (probably at Texas Tech University) on Hydraulic Fracturing.

Petrobras Deep Water Gas Lift Project
by: Peixoto, Guilherme; RibeiJose Eduardoro, Paulo José Pinto; Resende de Almeida, Alcino; Mendonça da Silva, — Added 4/14/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

The Petrobras Deepwater Gas Lift Project is part of the PROCAP 3000 program and intends to face the challenges of gas lifting in high pressure and high flow rate deepwater wells. The main objective is to search for products that will optimize the gas lift process.

The work is focused in four areas of interest: study of scenarios, equipment development, software development, and gas lift automation. Phase 1 of the project is almost completed and Phase 2 will start soon.

The developed products, accomplished tests, and obtained results for Phase 1 of the project will be presented here, along with a summary.

Pioneer Natural Resources 10 Year "Best Practices" Program and Database
by: Albert S. Garza, Danny Hernandez, Scott W. Long — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

August 17, 2006 marked the 10th Anniversary of the Pioneer Natural Resources, Preston Spraberry Unit (PSU) “Best Practices” Failure Reduction Program. This 10 year partnership between Pioneer Natural Resources, Flexbar Inc., Norris Rods, Tommy White Supply and Kel-Tech has resulted in significant reductions in downhole failures and savings in operational costs for Pioneer Natural Resources.

The 10 year performance (FPWPY) for this 150 well, PSU “Best Practices” program has resulted in a 94 % reduction in Tubing Leaks, 75 % reduction in Rod Failures and an 80 % reduction in Pump Failures.

The 10 year performance (Dollars Saved) for this PSU “Best Practices” 150 well project is estimated at $17.9 million utilizing the 2006 failure costs of $16,000 per Tubing Leak, $9,000 per Rod Failure and $8,000 per Pump Failure.

This 10 year savings represents an average of $1.8 Million per year for this 150 well failure reduction program

by: Jack Rogers — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Intemittent Gas-Lift

Many forms of artificial lift have been designed to deliquify gas wells. Plunger Lift is one form, utilizing the well’s natural reservoir pressure as the prime energy source for removing the liquids from the bottom of the well bore. Intermittent operation of a motor valve installed on the tubing allows fluid to be lifted to the surface, utilizing the free running plunger as an interface between liquids accumulated in the bottom of the well and the stored gas in the annulus. There are many variations of plunger lift employing multiple motor valves and many different sub-surface mechanical tubular arrangements. Chamber Lift is another form of artificial lift extending from Gas Lift. Combinations of Gas Lift and Plunger Lift have been used in the past and the technique described within is an extension of those methods.

by: Jack Rogers — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

Many forms of artificial lift have been designed to deliquify gas wells. Plunger Lift is one form, utilizing the well’s natural reservoir pressure as the prime energy source for removing the liquids from the bottom of the well bore. Intermittent operation of a motor valve installed on the tubing allows fluid to be lifted to the surface, utilizing the free running plunger as an interface between liquids accumulated in the bottom of the well and the stored gas in the annulus. There are many variations of plunger lift employing multiple motor valves and many different sub-surface mechanical tubular arrangements. Chamber Lift is another form of artificial lift extending from Gas Lift. Combinations of Gas Lift and Plunger Lift have been used in the past and the technique described within is an extension of those methods.

Plunger Lift – Modified Freewheeling
by: David L. Hammick, Jerry Evans — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

In this case, plungers have been run in higher rate gas wells producing some liquids and permitted to travel freely, making successive round trips. The improved modified system incorporates a motor valve and an electronic controller to shut the well in for ten seconds. This allows the plunger to fall out of the lubricator at a higher flow rate and remove any accumulating liquids, thereby increasing drawdown. Under the original freewheeling application the plunger would not drop until 250 MCFD (normal drop out) had been reached. The electronic controller allows for momentary (10 seconds) shutin as well as displaying the number of plunger trips for pumper assessment. This is one of several unique applications of the plunger.

Plunger Lift by Side String Injection
by: Jared C. Hall, Bruce Bell — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

Purpose – To design a system to produce gas or oil wells with low bottom hole pressure where a source of higher pressure makes up gas is available at the well head.

Solution – A plunger lift system in combination with a side string for injecting make up gas and pressure for lift.

by: G. Wayne Westerman — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

The advent of “smart” microprocessor based plunger lift controllers has produced a renewed interest in the application of plunger lift to remove fluid from both oil and gas wells. While a great deal of information regarding the economics of plunger lift installations and operations exists, there is little information available to assist in the design and evaluation of new plunger lift applications. This paper seeks to provide an approach to determining the operational feasibility of plunger lift operations in advance of equipment installation

Plunger Lift for Horizontal Wells
by: Russell Pullin, Paul Porter — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

With the increase of horizontal drilling for oil & natural gas, the problem of unloading liquids from the well becomes greater. Several methods of artificial lift have been implemented with varying results. Plunger Lift has been successful on these wells as long as the tubing is landed properly.

I intend to describe the proper procedure and theories associated with Plunger Lift in horizontal wells.

Plunger Lift Optimization by Monitoring and Analyzing Wellbore Acoustic Signals and Tubing Pressure and Casing Pressures
by: Jim McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, Dieter Becker, A.L. Podio — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

Plunger Lift operations are oftentimes not optimized due to lack of knowledge of the changes in tubing pressure, casing pressure, bottom-hole pressure and location of the plunger. Monitoring the plunger position in the tubing helps the operator (or controller) to optimize the removal of liquids and gas from the well. The plunger position can be tracked from the surface by monitoring acoustic signals generated as the plunger falls down the tubing. When the plunger passes by a tubing collar recess, an acoustic pulse is generated that travels up the gas within the tubing. The acoustic pulses are monitored at the surface, and are converted to an electrical signal by a microphone. The signal is digitized, and the digitized data is stored in a computer. Software processes this data along with the tubing and casing pressure data to display plunger depth, plunger velocity and well pressures vs. time. Plunger arrival at the liquid level in the tubing and plunger arrival at the bottom of

Portable System Takes Guesswork Out of Plunger Lift Analysis and Troubleshooting
by: O. Lynn Rowlan, Jim McCoy, A.L. Podio — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General Plunger Lift

To efficiently and economically operate a plunger lift well one of the most important requirements is to: KNOW THE PLUNGER LOCATION AT ALL TIMES, otherwise the operator has to guess, even when using electronic controllers. Except for when the plunger is at the surface, detected electronically or by ear, it has been difficult to determine the position of the plunger inside the tubing during the plunger fall and when it reaches the bottom of the tubing through the liquid column that has accumulated during the flow period. This new portable system can be used on plunger lifted wells to record the acoustic and pressure signal produced by the plunger during the operating cycle. The very sensitive acoustic monitoring system coupled with a user-friendly graphical software application, it is possible to virtually “see” the plunger at all times during a cycle, determine its precise fall velocity, and determine the volume of liquid accumulated at the bottom of the tubing.

Software proc

Power Consumption Test Fiberglass-Sinkerbar (FGSB) Design vs. API Steel Design
by: Scott Long, Kyle Chambliss, Fred Morrow — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

A series of tests measuring power consumption were conducted at the Texas Tech Red Raider Test Well. This test facility is located 5 miles northeast of the campus of Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas.

This paper introduces the Red Raider Test Well and all of it’s abilities for testing various components of a rod pumping artificial lift system to unprecedented level of accuracy.

This test measured the power consumed by the beam pumping system with all variables held co nstant except the surface stroke length and rodstring design.

The result of this test was a 14.9 % power savings utilizing a Fiberglass–Sinkerbar design as compared to an API Steel Design. This power savings exceeded the 10% threshold required by the State of Texas for a severance tax credit.

This paper demonstrates the need to consider power costs when designing and installing artificial lift systems.

by: Gabor Takacs — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump General

The paper investigates the power conditions of sucker-rod pumped installations. The power losses occurring in a rod pumping system are detailed and are grouped into surface and subsurface losses. The system’s overall energy efficiency is defined and is broken into its constituent parts. After a detailed evaluation of the possible energy losses, a three-term formula is proposed in which the most important term is the lifting efficiency that describes the downhole energy losses in the rod-pumped well.

When evaluating the energy efficiency of sucker-rod pumped installations, the calculation of the rod pump’s useful power plays a decisive role. The paper proposes a new formula to properly describe the useful power exercised by the downhole pump that represents the minimum power requirement for lifting the given amount of liquid to the surface. Through worked examples, the paper shows the advantages of using the proposed formula and recommends its future use for the calculation of the ro

Preventing ESP Failures by Utilizing Integrated Control System in the SACROC CO2 Flood
by: Scott C. Shifflett, Malcom Rainwater — Added 6/13/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Failures

ESP systems are difficult to operate in plumping wells. This is a common operating condition in CO2 floods. A flowing well simulates a no-load or gas locking condition at the surface. The controller then shuts the well down as the underload parameters are exceeded. This repeated cycling is damaging to all components in the system.

An integrated control system utilizing a downhole sensor, surface controls and RTU can been utilized to prevent unnecessary shutdowns and premature failures. This system by-passes the underload parameters but limits the motor operating temperature to 200?F. If a gas locking or pump off condition occurs, the motor temperature rises, the system shuts the unit down and then restarts once the temperatures normalize.

This application increases production and reduced system failures. This paper will detail the production performance with and without integrated control systems.

Preventing Tubing Leaks in the Field "A Reality Check"
by: Fred Newman — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

Tubing leaks due to rod wear and corrosion are common in the oil field and can add significantly to the operating cost of any well. The preferred field applicable approaches to finding production tubing weak spots and leaks vary with different companies and range from pouring paint from a bucket, hydrostatic testing, and electronic inspection of the tubing as it is tripped.

We have taken field data from numerous jobs and explored how each of these testing methods can be improved or enhanced to increase information reliability and to reduce the frequency and cost of well failures.

Caveat: It is not the purpose of this paper to review or judge the attributes of the various techniques and apparatus used in electronic tubing inspection services as the equipment varies in how it works and how it is built. This paper addresses how the on-lease technology is applied over the well and how the results can change based on field applications and interpretations.

by: Brown Lyle Wilson — Added 6/11/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - ESP Pumps

The centrifugal pump is a dynamic pumping device. Two-phase fluids with several orders of magnitude difference in the density of the phases have always been very difficult to pump.

This presentation reviews the historical methods for gas handling and presents information on the gas handling methods and devices recently introduced to the industry.

This information will be of great benefit for anyone involved in the selection and sizing of artificial lift equipment for oil wells and for the de-watering of wells for gas production.

Production Enhancement and Cost Reduction Opportunities as Identified by Electrical Wood Group Submersible Pumps, Inc.’s Sub Maintenance Program
by: Jon Hale, Alan Martinez — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - General

High volume artificial lift through the use of submersible pumps has become common place in the Permian Basin. Many operators have made a significant investment with the use of submersible pumps, and, therefore, it is imperative that their submersible pump program attains long runtimes, encounters limited failures, and maintains efficient oil production. To successfully operate submersible pumps, it is critical to have the capability to monitor and evaluate the overall performance on a routine basis utilizing timely, accurate data. One option is the use of Electrical Submersible Pump’s (ESP’s) “Sub Maintenance Program”, in which pertinent data is captured and presented in a format where well information can be interpreted so that proactive decisions can be made. Among the opportunities identified by the Sub Maintenance Program are production enhancements, reduction of power costs, reduction of submersible pump failures, and the proper utilization of submersible pump inventory.

Production Rules of Thumb Notebook
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/5/2009 7:48:52 PMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

This document contains a "gold mine" of rules of thumb for various oil and gas production calculations and processes.

Profitability of Sucker-Rod Pump Operations is Improved through Proper Installation Design
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Beam Pump Design

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Progress Report #4 on "Fluid Slippage in Down-Hole-Rod-Drawn-Oil Well Pumps"
by: John Patterson, Ralph Harding, Benny Williams, Mike Brock, Kyle Chambliss, Jim Curfew, Lynn Rowlan, Ken Nolen — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

This paper will present the results of the last down-hole-rod-drawn pump fluid slippage testing recently completed at the Texas Tech test well (Red Raider #1). This is # 4 in the series which began with laboratory testing presented in 1998. This paper will present an update to the empirical equation which will estimate down-hole fluid slippage over a range of pump sizes, clearances and strokes per minute (SPM).

Pump Card Analysis Simplified
by: James N. McCoy, Lynn Rowlan, Tony Podio — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Diagnosis

A dynamometer pump card is a plot of the calculated pump loads and pump plunger positions during one complete stroke of the pumping unit. The plot is used to analyze pump performance. The pump card is normally calculated from measured surface polished rod load and position data. Different methods are used to display and plot so-called “Pump Cards”. Sometimes the so-called pump card is actually a plot of sucker rod load and position, or maybe a sinker bar located above the pump. Several advantages exist for plotting the pump card as the load that the pump plunger applies to the sucker rod. First and foremost, the pump plunger card is easier to interpret and shows more mechanical and reservoir information. Visual estimates (high, medium and low) of the pump intake pressure are obvious from the pump card. Also, the zero load line on the pump plunger card indicates the quality and accuracy of the surface load and position measurements and computations. Examples are shown of the pu

Pump Slippage Test Update
by: Kyle Chambliss, Jim Curfew, John Patterson, Ralph Harding, Mike Brock, Lynn Rowlan, Ken Nolen, Paulus Adisomarta — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

Pump slippage is an important part of the operation of a rod pumped well. A number of companies along with Texas Tech University have been conducting research on pump slippage in order to better understand the factors that effect slippage and derive a new slippage formula. This research was performed using the Red Raider # 1, a 4006’ test well operated by Texas Tech. This presentation will be an update on what has been learned so far during the slippage test

Pumping Well Problem Analysis
by: Eubanks, JM, Franks, BL, Lawrence, DK, Mawelll, TE, Merryman, CJ — Added 11/5/2009 7:59:20 PMWinkler Library - Beam Pumping

This is a treatise on analyzing problems with sucker rod pumping wells.

by: Reg Prostebby, Bob Ciarla, Saul L. Tovar — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

The developoment of a new cage for bottomhole sucker rod pumps was initiated by Oxy Petrolem to solve prematrue failures of existing cages in their water flood fields. Oxy approached Quinn’s with the purpose of designing a cage in the Wasson/Clearforks area.

After reviewing the wells, Quinn’s designed a new cage that is a one piece cage, can handle an alternate pattern ball, have better flow characteristics with less pressure drop than any existing cages, and handle deep, corrosive well conditions.

Quinn’s utilized their finite element anaylysis software to design this new cage. The QP2 cages were built, ran and tested. Quinn’s also successfully developed interim cages that achieved longer run lives while develping the QP2 cage.

This paper will expand on the design process that was undertaken to fulfill Oxy’s request for a better cage and also verify the design criteria.

Questions and Issues Surrounding Sucker Rod Connection Integrity and Their Effect on Well Failure Rates
by: Fred Newman — Added 6/12/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Sucker Rods

The questions and issues surrounding sucker rod connection integrity and its effect on well failure rates has been around as long as the sucker rod itself. The standards set by the manufactures of rods and couplings, the service rigs that run and pull them, and the use in the field will be discussed, explored, and investigated using actual field data looking for methods to improve the reliability of sucker rod connections.

High speed torque turn data during tong rotation is presented and the analysis of this data, both in the disassembling process as well as the makeup process will be evaluated. Type curve fitting for connection evaluation and real time alarming to the crews will be presented and discussed.

Real Time Expert Systems For Production Optimization
by: Bolonhini, Edson Henrique; Correa, José Francisco; Campos, Sthener R. V. — Added 4/14/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Expert systems focused on production optimization in Petrobras result from the combination of the petroleum engineer’s knowledge with automation techniques. In order to enhance intermittent and continuous gas lift efficiency and to adapt the system to the operational reality, different control methodologies have been developed.

This presentation will describe strategies based on pattern recognition and a close loop algorithm approach that are helping the production engineers to minimize oil losses, act remotely in distant wells, provide faster diagnostics, and gather historical trends to feedback petroleum knowledge at office desktop. Field cases from each technique will be presented, showing information from the supervisory and the data base architecture that is supporting these strategies.

Real Time Optimization of Gas Lifted Asset using Integrated Production Model
by: Dixit, Ashok — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas-Lift Optimization

Abstract Corrupted. Need to reload.

Real Time Production Surveillance and Optimization of Gas-Lift Wells
by: Oyewole, Peter; Adegoke, Adesola; Jones, Jason; — Added 6/21/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

In this study we want to prove the value of gas-lift optimization through production surveillance in a producing environment which was technically challenging to operate with rod pumps and show a web-enabled workflow developed for optimizing gas-lift wells using real time data. This will be achieved by provisioning the wells to allow for well data acquisition in real time, performing production surveillance on the gas-lift wells to proactively identify production issues, creating well models to predict gas lift performance, and developing a workflow based on acquiring well data in real time. The web-enabled workflow enhanced decision making in optimizing the gas-lift well continuously using real time data, which allowed the client to maintain and improve the revenue margins compared to operating with rod pumps.

Real-Time Diagnostics of Gas Lift Systems Using Intelligent Agents
by: Stephenson, Greg; deGuzman, Neil — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

One of the major challenges facing users of gas lift technology is identifying underperforming wells accurately and in a timely manner. Due to limited expertise in the field, lack of resources and competing priorities, significant opportunities for performance enhancement can go undetected for many months or even years. In recent years, there have been many exciting advances in the areas of automation and intelligent systems in such fields as finance, defense and national security. Today, automation technology in the upstream E&P sector has reached a state of maturity that makes it practical to apply these technologies to key problems facing our industry.

by: Jeff Knight, Duane Bullock, Joe Lisenbee — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - ESP Pumps

The recirculation electric submersible pump system was introduced to industry in 1996. Subsequently, the system’s utility has been demonstrated in numerous installations, the vast majority of which have occurred in the Permian Basin area of west Texas / Southeast New Mexico. The system can be used to: (1) minimize gas interference with the pump (2) maximize well drawdown (3) increase fluid flow past the motor in low volume wells, and (4) eliminate shrouds. The primary goals of most all existing installations have been either to avoid gas interference with the pump and/or to minimize producing fluid levels.

This paper provides a basic description of the recirculation system. Sample output from a new recirculation pump sizing applet is presented. The benefits of the technology to Permian Basin Operators are demonstrated through several case histories. These examples include applications of the technology in both 5-1/2 in. and 7 in. casing wells.

Reda Alternative Deployed Pumping Systems
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - General ESP

The CDPS3 Pumping System is designed to reduce workover costs and downtime associated with remote well sites.

With this cable deployed system, the submergible pump
is lowered into the well with a tension cable and seated in a landing profile in either 5" or 7" production tubing. A custom
designed drawworks unit is utilized to pull and run the
downhole pump, eliminating the need for a conventional
workover rig.

Reda Composite Products Catalog
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Catalogs

Reda's electrical submergible pump (ESP) consists of a downhole pump
assembly, electric power cable and surface controls.

In a typical application, the pump is suspended on a tubing string and submerged in the well fluid.

The ESP has proven to be a versatile method of lift for wells producing from 100 to 95,000 BPD and operate
in every major oil field in the world.

Once considered to be economic only in high volume applications, the average Reda submergible is now
designed to produce less than 1000 BPD. Today, ESP's are being specified for many applications previously reserved for other types of
artificial lift due to new technology in component material and special
purpose products introduced by Reda.

Reda Downhole Dewatering Ssytem
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - General ESP

REDA's Downhole Dewatering Systems combine the production and disposal functions in the same well, maximizing profits in both oil and gas wells. Both
Downhole Dewatering Systems can greatly reduce surface equipment expense, energy
costs and environmental risks.

Reda Service Manual
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Manuals

This Service Manual is printed by Reda, a Camco Company, strictly to aid and to assist in installation and service of the Company's products and equipment. lt is not intended to be a comprehensive guide, and no
warranties, guarantees or
representations are made by
Reda, in connection with the use this manual.

Reda Submergible Pumps for the Petroleum Industry
by: Author(s) Unknown — Added 11/10/2009 12:00:00 AMWinkler Library - ESP Manuals

An Electrical Submersible Pump catalog from Reda.

Reliable Subsea Gas Lift System Meets the Challenge for Statoil’s NSD-URD Development
by: Stabell, Rina; White, Tommy; Lovie, Eric — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Statoil’s Norne Satellites Development (URD) lies about 125 mi. (200 km) from the north Norwegian coast at 66°N latitude, where the Norne FPSO produces from the Norne field and its two satellite fields, Staer and Svale. Staer is about 2.8 mi. (4.5 km) northeast of Norne, and Svale is an equal distance northeast of Staer. The satellites produce from three subsea installations comprising five producing oil wells and three water injection wells (Figure 1). Maximum reservoir depth is 8,150-ft (2,484 m), and water depth is about 1,245-ft (380 m). Significant uncertainties in identifying the properties and volumes of untested segments, led Statoil to believe that the best way to produce the Norne satellites was through the combination of open hole sand control completions with intelligent well systems augmented by high-performance gas lift and downhole injection of scale inhibitors.

Remote Workforce Solutions from a Global Gas Lift Help Desk
by: White, Tommy — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Automation

By fully exploiting the data and information at their disposal, E&P companies can increase efficiency, improve financial performance, maximize asset value and strengthen competitive position in a dynamic marketplace. Success depends on transforming data and information into verified, instantly accessible knowledge as a basis for real-time decision-making. This is achieved only by creating a structure around knowledge capture and sharing. This paper will review the successful implementation of gas lift knowledge solutions from a global help desk perspective and show how a virtual knowledge base can add value by enabling a remote workforce access to procedures, techniques and proven practices.

Retrofit Gas-Lift on a Tension Leg Platform Well
by: Babajide, Abi — Added 6/28/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

When oil wells can no longer flow naturally, artificial lift methods are often employed. Most mechanical installations of artificial lift equipment require a complete workover of the well, involving pulling the well apart and re-running the completion with artificial lift. These methods can prove to be prohibitively expensive and/or risky, and so may not pass the economic hurdle to implement.

A tubing punch and pack-off gas-lift system, also known as an “econo-gas-lift” or retrofit gas-lift system may provide a less risky and economically viable means of bringing dead wells back on production or optimizing flowing wells. To the best of our knowledge, the use of retrofit gas-lift systems has been untested in a Tension Leg Platform (TLP) environment, and poses a new set of challenges as opposed to its use on offshore shelf locations.

A case study of the gas-lift retrofit of an oil well on a tension leg platform in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed met

Rigless Gas Lift Conversion – A Success Story
by: Bikoro, Fortune — Added 6/25/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

MLC-1 is the only oil producer from the MLC satellite field located in block 405a onshore Algeria. It is part of the MLN field development operated by Burlington Resources. The MLN field oil production operations started mid-2003, and MLC-1 was open to production in December 2003.

The field has a defined maximum efficiency rate, or MER rate of 4,070 bopd, that it should not exceed. Within the first year, the oil production rate dropped from 4,200 bbls/d to 1,500 bbls/d due to reservoir depletion. There is no pressure support either by gas or water injection or any other producing well in the MLC field.

MLC-1 is a vertical well with 4.5” tubing to surface, stabbed into a 4.5” liner over the reservoir section. The well was completed with completion brine left in the annulus. The well is tied back to a facility which separates oil and gas from a number of fields and re-injects gas into other reservoirs at around 400bar. Therefore a high pressure gas source is available.

Rod Pumping Deviated Wells
by: Jun Xu, Andy Cordova, Dennis Shipp — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

More and more directional wells are being drilled to maximize hydrocarbon recovery and overcome environmental restriction. Today’s state of art predictive software for rod pumping can be used to design and optimize rod pumping in deviated wells as well as vertical wells. Previously, traditional methods including wave equation techniques assume that the wellbore is vertical. Applying these methods to rod pumping in deviated wells will result in substantial errors and cause inappropriate design. The new technique considers a deviation survey for the 3-D borehole trajectory and rod/tubing drag in the predictive design method. The paper examines a real case for a severely deviated well by using the new software, showing best practices, sensitivity analysis and optimization.

SCADA System Options for the Oilfeild
by: Alan W. Bryant, George G. Robertson — Added 6/9/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Art. Lift Computer Sys.

This paper covers basic information on equipment and technology available for implementing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA systems) in the oilfield. Topics include RTU’s including electronic flow meters, pump off controllers, PLC’s, human/machine interface (HMI) options, communication protocols (Modbus, Ethernet, others), communication pathways (wireless, cable, fiber optic), and a brief discussion of project considerations such as project economics, project implementation strategies, and system purpose vs. reliability, maintainability, and system integrator services.

Self-Tuning Algorithm for Intermittent Gas Lift
by: Gustavo Vinicius Lourenço Moisés; Jaildo de Jesús; Joseil Rodrigues da Silva; Nadilson Santos Muniz — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Intermittent Gas Lift

This work describes a self-tuning algorithm that was developed to identify equipment failures and behavior changes of Intermittent Gas Lift wells, improving the asset production cycle efficiency.

The shape of tubing and casing pressures cycle curves are the key elements of the algorithm that identify the most common failures related to Intermittent Lift Gas and infer well change behaviors such as water cut variations and production losses due to valves leakages or blockages, tubing leakage to the annular and short gas injection period. Without further system adjustments, this algorithm adapts automatically to the well’s parameters and informs its status by sending error messages to the SCADA system.

In addition, production indicators based on well status are used to measure the efficiency of maintenance and operator staff in order to maximize production and improve the asset work flow.

Shell Experience with Plunger Assisted Intermittent Gas-Lift (PAIL)
by: Moncur, Charlie — Added 6/1/2008 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Intermittent Gas Lift

Intermittent gaslift has not found much favour as an artificial lift technique in Shell Operating Companies. Shell has trialed and tested intermittent gaslift installations since 1962 in a number of its operating units. Success with intermittent lift has been limited due to the poor capabilities of the surface control units, hardware and the additional operational workload, which these systems generated. Intermittent gaslift was seen as an art rather than a science and placed in the “too difficult box”.

A specific intermittent lift technique PAIL (Plunger Assist Intermittent Lift) was developed and used in a Shell operating company over the last 2 decades. A total of 10 wells have been produced on PAIL with varying degrees of success. Despite the poor performance a number of wells have remained in production, for some 14 years, with PAIL systems. These wells have produced significant cumulative volumes of oil.

by: Scott W. Long, Elton J. Smith, Charlie R. Hoff, Albert S. Garza, Paul Treadwell, Johnny Bunsen — Added 6/10/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - BP Downhole Equipment

This paper is an update of a Southwestern Petroleum Short Course paper presented in 1999. This update presents four years of additional performance from this ongoing “Best Practices” Program.

In the 1999 paper after two years of the “Best Practices” Program, performance (FPWPY) was as follows:
Tubing Leaks Reduced 61 %
Rod Parts Reduced 35 %
Pump Repairs Reduced 6 %

After 6 years of the “Best Practices” Program, performance (FPWPY) is as follows:

Tubing leaks Reduced 85 %
Rod Parts Reduced 50 %
Pump Repairs Reduced 67 %

This paper provides the additional failure reduction processes initiated since the 1999 SWPSC paper. This paper will also show the impact of implementing a field wide “Best Practices” program. This paper demonstrates the benefits of an ongoing performance database to project and evaluate future performance.

Smart Plunger Technology
by: Kyle Stell — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Plunger Lift Optimization

Smart plunger technology allows producers to receive fast and reliable down hole pressure and temperature information from a plunger equipped with an internal pressure and temperature gauge. The smart plunger is dropped down hole like any other plunger. Normal cyclical operation of the well returns the plunger to surface without the use of wireline, rig, and crew. When the plunger is retrieved at surface, the pressure vs. time data is downloaded to the operator’s laptop or PC for display to operators and engineers. The smart plunger is capable of logging normal rise and fall plunger runs, shut in build up tests; as well as, stationary down hole flowing applications. The smart plunger can be utilized as a plunger lift optimization tool. Knowing exactly how long it takes a plunger to hit fluid and bottom, allows operators to decrease fall times and increase sales times. The smart plunger can be used as a surveillance tool. If an operator suspects they have a hole in the tubing, they can

Solar Powered Rod Pumping System, Where Bigger is not Better
by: Lynn Rowlan, Mike Poythress, Gordon Gates — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Beam Pump Design

Continuous Fiberglass Rod pump jacks system designed for efficient low horsepower are beginning to be used for dewatering of gas wells. These systems are easily transportable and erected; and are designed for low maintenance. Typically less than a 1 HP solar powered DC electric motor drives this pumping system to produce usually less than 10 barrels of liquid per day from the well. This system is designed for the removal of solids in the produced fluids and resists wear and tear due to abrasion and from over pumping the well. This innovative technology is best applied to shallow gas wells in remote locations where electric power may not be available and where a small amount of liquid loading is reducing gas flow from the well.

A bank of batteries and a charging system are incorporated to provide power to the pumping system on overcast days and at night. A controller allows for multiple run cycles throughout a 24 hour day, to match the system design with the well’s production.

Solid Chemical Stick Applications for Optimization of Gas Production
by: Eddie Huber, Katherine Klipstine — Added 9/20/2009 12:00:00 AMSWPSC - Chemical Topics

Wide varieties of solid chemical sticks, when properly used, can be cost effective and increase production of gas wells. Determination of the right solid chemical stick is crucial for all applications. Analysis of water, oil, and determination of fluid column height, hydrocarbon content, chlorides, and bottom hole pressure and temperature are used to determine the proper formulation of solid chemical sticks.

For economic reason you can follow the 25-30% removal principal when using soap sticks. It is not unusual to find that if 25-30% of the water column is removed by soap sticks, an equal amount of back psi (25-30%) is eliminated from the formation. This allows a surge of gas that helps remove some additional water for a period of time. This is again achieved by proper selection of solid chemical sticks.

Sonolog Accoustic Well Sounder
by: Alexanger Wolf — Added 11/10/2009 6:55:42 PMWinkler Library - Art. Lift Information

The attached printed brochure on Model D-4 SONOLOG describes the reasons for various
features of the the instrument, and lists the applications of acoustic sounding.

Study Evaluates How to Improve Rod Pumping in Mature Field
by: Gabor Takacs — Added 10/18/2009 10:01:35 PMGeneral - Beam Pump Design

Abstract will be available at a later date.

Subsea GL Undergoes Review
by: Ghobrial, Nora — Added 3/31/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Offshore Gas-Lift

Subsea GL Undergoes Review will be about Shell's first proposed Gulf of Mexico sub-sea in-wellbore gas-lift project withstanding production engineering technical review. I will basically show the workshop how the project was technically defended and justified focusing on what portions of the production engineering/gas-lift segment of the project were challenged and how those challenges were answered. I hope to make this a peek into an instance when a real sub-sea gas-lift project underwent production engineering review.

Successful Implementation of an Integrated Production Network Model for the Heera Field
by: Aggarwal, Pavan; Nadar, Manickam — Added 3/2/2009 12:00:00 AMGeneral - Gas Lift Topics

This presentation describes the successful implementation of an integrated production network model for the Heera field located in the Western offshore region of India. The field produces from 119 well strings, most of them gas-lifted.

The network model was built, history matched and calibrated to actual field data. Based on optimization recommendations from the model, following work has been performed so far:

• Wireline intervention in 17 wells (identified in the initial well modeling phase of the project) has led to well gas lift efficiency improvement, giving a total gain of oil production of 800 BOPD.
• Reallocation of lift gas (increase or decrease) based on model recommendation has led to a gain of 900 BOPD with a simultaneous reduction of lift gas requirement by 6%.
• The well models have now been updated with the new gas-lift and production test data, and the new well performance surfaces have been imported into the network model for further optimization.

by: Takacs, Gabor — Added 10/8/2009 8:48:20 PMGeneral - BP General Topics

This is a textbook by Dr. Gabor Takacs on Sucker Rod Pumping.

Summary of 2011 Workshop Presentations
by: Cleon Dunham — Added 9/24/2011 12:00:00 AMGeneral - ESP Workshop Summaries